Allied Warships

HMS Princess Beatrix (4.44)

Landing Ship Infantry

NavyThe Royal Navy
TypeLanding Ship Infantry
Class[No specific class] 
Pennant4.44 
ModLSI(M) 
Built byKoninklijke Maatschappij De Schelde (Vlissingen (Flushing), The Netherlands) 
Ordered 
Laid down7 May 1938 
Launched25 Mar 1939 
Commissioned14 Jan 1941 
End service 
History

Completed as passenger ship Prinses Beatrix on 3 July 1939.
Requisitioned by the Royal Navy in August 1940 and converted to an LSI(M).
Displacement: 4136 tons.
Lenght: 380 feet
Complement: 227
Machinery: 2 Shafts, Diesel engines, BHP 12700 = 23 knots.
Armament: 2 12pdr AA guns (2x1), 2 2pdr AA (2x1), 6 20mm AA (6x1)
Carried 2 LCM's, 6 LCA's or LCS(M)'s and 372 troops

Returned in April 1946. 

Commands listed for HMS Princess Beatrix (4.44)

Please note that we're still working on this section
and that we only list Commanding Officers for the duration of the Second World War.

CommanderFromTo
1A/Cdr. Thomas Bennett Brunton, RN19 Nov 1940early 1944
2A/Lt.Cdr. John Fulcher Coleman, RNRearly 1944mid 1944
3T/A/Lt.Cdr. Joseph Downes King, RNRmid 19448 Mar 1945
4A/Cdr. Joseph Stretch, RD, RNR8 Mar 194527 Sep 1945
5Cdr. (retired) Benjamin Evans, DSC, RNR27 Sep 1945early 1946

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Notable events involving Princess Beatrix include:


4 Mar 1941

Operation Claymore.

Commando raid on the Lofoten Islands, Norway.

Around 2345A/28 the destroyers HMS Somali (Capt. C. Caslon, RN), HMS Bedouin (Cdr. J.A. McCoy, DSO, RN), HMS Eskimo (Lt.Cdr. E.G. Le Geyt, RN), HMS Tartar (Cdr. L.P. Skipwith, RN), HMS Legion (Cdr. R.F. Jessel, RN) and the landing ships HMS Princess Beatrix (A/Cdr. T.B. Brunton, RN) and HMS Queen Emma (Lt.Cdr. E.J.R. North, RNR) departed Scapa Flow for operation ' Claymore '. These ships fuelled at Skálafjørður, Faeroer Islands arriving there around 1900A/1. They departed about five hour later.

A cover force, made up the battleships HMS Nelson (Capt. G.J.A. Miles, RN, flying the flag of A/Adm. J.C. Tovey, KCB, DSO, RN), HMS King George V (Capt. W.R. Patterson, CVO, RN), light cruisers HMS Edinburgh (Capt. C.M. Blackman, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Vice-Admiral L.E. Holland, CB, RN), HMS Nigeria (Capt. J.G.L. Dundas, RN) and the destroyers HMS Inglefield (Capt. P. Todd, DSO, RN), HMS Maori (Cdr. H.T. Armstrong, DSC, RN), HMS Punjabi (Cdr. S.A. Buss, MVO, RN), HMS Echo (Lt.Cdr. C.H.deB. Newby, RN) and HMS Eclipse (Lt.Cdr. I.T. Clark, RN) departed Scapa Flow around 1430A/2.

At 1900A/3, HMS Edinburgh and HMS Nigeria were detached to provide close cover for the landing force. '

During the operation the submarine HMS Sunfish (Lt. G.R. Colvin, RN) acted as a beacon to guide the ships of the landing force in.

During the operation HMS Somali remained at sea in the Vestfiord. She managed to enter the German patrol vessel NN 04 / Krebs during which imported Enigma coding meterial was captured. Krebs was then sunk.

The landing ship HMS Queen Emma and the destroyers HMS Bedouin and HMS Tartar proceeded to Svolvaer.

The landing ship HMS Princess Beatrix and the destroyers HMS Eskimo and HMS Legion proceeded to Stamsund.

The commandoes were landed. At Stamsund they destroyed the Lofotens Cod Boiling Plant while two factories were destroyed at Henningsvær and thirteen at Svolvær. About 800000 gallons (3600 m3) of fish oil and paraffin were set on fire.

The commandoes captured 225 prisoners including Norwegian collaborators and also took 314 Norwegian volunteers with them which wanted to join the Norwegian armed forces.

Besides that the merchant vessels Bernard Schulte (1058 GRT, built 1923), Eilenau (1404 GRT, built 1910) and Felix Heumann (2468 GRT, built 1921) were sunk by demolition charges at Svolvær.

HMS Tartar sank the German merchant vessels Hamburg (fishmeal factory ship, 6136 GRT, built 1911) and Pasajes (1996 GRT, built 1923).

The German merchant vessel Gumbinnen (1381 GRT, built 1922) was sunk by with demolition charges by the Army landing party.

The Norwegian passenger/cargo vessel Mira (1152 GRT, built 1891) was sunk by HMS Bedouin.

The Norwegian fishing vessel (trawler) Myrland (321 GRT, built 1918) joined the British force and proceeded to the Faroes, arriving there on 7 March 1941.

HMS Edinburgh and HMS Nigeria arrived at Scapa flow around 1200A/6.

HMS Somali, HMS Bedouin, HMS Eskimo, HMS Tartar, HMS Legion, HMS Princess Beatrix and HMS Queen Emma arrived at Scapa Flow around 1300A/6.

HMS Nelson, HMS King George V, HMS Inglefield, HMS Maori, HMS Punjabi, HMS Echo and HMS Eclipse arrived at Scapa Flow around 1400A/6. (1)

17 Sep 1941

Convoy WS 11X,
Troop convoy from Liverpool / Clyde to Gibraltar.

On 16 September 1941 the ships Ajax (7797 GRT, built 1931), City of Lincoln (8039 GRT, built 1938) departed from Liverpool to make rendes-vous the following day off Orsay Island with the following ships that had departed the Clyde on the 17th; City of Calcutta (8063 GRT, built 1940), Clan Ferguson (7347 GRT, built 1938), Clan Macdonald (9653 GRT, built 1939), Dunedin Star (11168 GRT, built 1936), Imperial Star (12427 GRT, built 1934), Rowallan Castle (7801 GRT, built 1939), HMS Breconshire (9776 GRT, built 1939) (Capt.(ret.) C.A.G. Hutchison, RN), HMS Princess Beatrix (4136 GRT, built 1939) (Cdr.(ret.) T.B. Brunton, RN), HMS Queen Emma (4136 GRT, built 1939) (Capt.(ret.) G.L.D. Gibbs, DSO, RN), HMS Royal Scotsman (3288 GRT, built 1936) (T/Cdr. J.W. Peters, RNR), HMS Ulster Monarch (3791 GRT, built 1929) (T/Cdr. J. Wilson, RNR) and Leinster (4302 GRT, built 1937).

Most of the ships of this convoy were to form the convoy for operation Halberd from Gibraltar to Malta. The following ships made only the passage to Gibraltar with convoy WS 11X; HMS Princess Beatrix, HMS Queen Emma, HMS Royal Scotsman, HMS Ulster Monarch and Leinster.

Escort for this convoy was provided by; battleship HMS Prince of Wales (Capt. J.C. Leach, MVO, RN), light cruisers HMS Kenya (Capt. M.M. Denny, CB, RN), HMS Euryalus (Capt. E.W. Bush, DSO, DSC, RN), destroyers HMS Laforey (Capt. R.M.J. Hutton, DSO, RN), HMS Lightning (Cdr. R.G. Stewart, RN), HMS Oribi (Lt.Cdr. J.E.H. McBeath, DSO, RN), HMS Havelock (Cdr. E.H. Thomas, DSC, RN), HMS Harvester (Lt.Cdr. M. Thornton, DSC, RN), HMS Whitehall (Lt.Cdr. A.B. Russell, RN), HMS Witch (Lt.Cdr. C.H. Holmes, RN), HMS Blankney (Lt.Cdr. P.F. Powlett, DSC, RN), ORP Piorun (Cdr. E.J.S. Plawski), ORP Garland (Lt.Cdr. K.F. Namiesniowski, ORP) and HrMs Isaac Sweers (Cdr. J. Houtsmuller, RNethN).

In the evening of the 19th (2115 hours, B.S.T.) the destroyers HMS Havelock and HMS Harvester were detached from the convoy to escort the liner (troopship) Stratheden (23722 GRT, built 1937) all the way to Halifax. Until that moment the Stratheden had also been part of convoy WS 11X. The position in which these ships were detached was 50°57'N, 24°55'E.

On 21 September the convoy was joined by three destroyers coming from Gibraltar; HMS Zulu (Cdr. H.R. Graham, DSO, RN), HMS Lance (Lt.Cdr. R.W.F. Northcott, RN), HMS Gurkha (Cdr. C.N. Lentaigne, RN). These destroyers had sailed from Gibraltar on the 18th.

Also sailed from Gibraltar on the 18th was the aircraft carrier HMS Furious (Capt. A.G. Talbot, DSO, RN) escorted the destroyers HMS Foresight (Cdr. J.S.C. Salter, RN), HMS Forester (Lt.Cdr. E.B. Tancock, DSC and Bar, RN), HMS Fury (Lt.Cdr. T.C. Robinson, RN) and HMS Legion (Cdr. R.F. Jessel, RN) to provide cover for the convoy. Following this HMS Furious was then to proceed to Bermuda and finally to the US for a refit. The destroyers then made rendes-vous with the British battleship HMS Rodney (Capt. J.W. Rivett-Carnac, DSC, RN) coming from a refit in the United States. They then provided cover for the convoy joining it around 1200/21. Shortly after Rodney had joined the convoy HMS Prince of Wales left the convoy for Gibraltar escorted by HMS Laforey, HMS Lightning and HMS Oribi. They arrived at Gibraltar to fuel late on the 23th. They departed Gibraltar around 0400/24 and rejoined the convoy west of Gibraltar around 1200/24. Before HMS Prince of Wales rejoined the convoy HMS Rodney had departed the convoy and also headed for Gibraltar escorted by the destroyers ORP Piorun, ORP Garland and HrMs Isaac Sweers. HMS Rodney and her escorting destroyers arrived at Gibraltar at 0900/24. In the evening of the 24th, HMS Nelson sailed westwards escorted by the same destroyers that had brought HMS Rodney in giving the German and Italian spies across the Bay in Spanish Algeciras the impression that HMS Rodney had just relieved HMS Nelson as flagship of Force H. This diversion seemed to have had the desired effect. During the night HMS Nelson and her escorting destroyers reversed course and passed the Straits of Gibraltar to the eastward unseen after dark.

On the 20th the cruiser HMS Sheffield (Capt. A.W. Clarke, RN) and the destroyer HMS Lively (Lt.Cdr. W.F.E. Hussey, DSC, RN) also departed Gibraltar to provide cover for the convoy.

On the 21th the cruisers HMS Kenya and HMS Euryalus departed the convoy for Gibraltar where they both arrived at 2300/22. After fuelling they departed before daylight on the 23th to rejoin the convoy to the west of Gibraltar. At Gibraltar Rear-Admiral H.M. Burrough, CB, RN, had hoised his flag on board HMS Kenya.

On the 23th the destroyer HMS Cossack (Capt. E.L. Berthon, DSC, RN) and escort destroyers HMS Heythrop (Lt.Cdr R.S. Stafford, RN) and HMS Farndale (Cdr. S.H. Carlill, RN) bolstered the escort in the approaches to Gibraltar joining the convoy around 0800/24. Also on the 24th light cruiser HMS Edinburgh (Capt. H.W. Faulkner, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral E.N. Syfret, RN) departed Gibraltar at 1230 hours to join the convoy.

Also on the 24th two groups of destroyers arrived at Gibraltar to refuel. The destroyers HMS Foresight, HMS Forester, HMS Gurkha and HMS Lance arrived at 1600 hours. The destroyers HMS Legion, HMS Lively and HMS Zulu arrived at 1800 hours.

See 25 September 1941 'Convoy operation Halberd' for the continuation of the events..

4 Nov 1941
The RFA tanker Olwen (6470 GRT, built 1917) reported being attacked by an enemy raider in position 03°04'N, 22°42'W.

In response the light cruiser HMS Dunedin (Capt. R.S. Lovatt, RN) and the landing ships HMS Princess Beatrix (4136 GRT, built 1939) (Cdr.(ret.) T.B. Brunton, RN), HMS Queen Emma (4136 GRT, built 1939) (Capt.(ret.) G.L.D. Gibbs, DSO, RN) were ordered to leave Freetown as soon as possible and search the area. They sailed the following day. (2)

9 Nov 1941
HMS Dunedin (Capt. R.S. Lovatt, RN), HMS Princess Beatrix (4136 GRT, built 1939) (Cdr.(ret.) T.B. Brunton, RN) and HMS Queen Emma (4136 GRT, built 1939) (Capt.(ret.) G.L.D. Gibbs, DSO, RN) returned to Freetown from patrol. (2)

22 Oct 1942

Convoys KMS 1, KMF 1 for the landings at Algiers and Oran during Operation Torch.

Convoy KMS 1.

This convoy was assembled off Oversay on 23 October 1942.

It was made up of the following transports; Alcinous (Dutch, 6189 GRT, built 1925), Alphard (Dutch, 5483 GRT, built 1937), Ardeola (British, 2609 GRT, built 1912), Benalbanach (British, 7153 GRT, built 1940), Charles H. Cramp (American, 6220 GRT, built 1920), Chattanooga City (American, 5687 GRT, built 1921), City of Worcester (British, 5469 GRT, built 1927), Clan MacTaggart (British, 7622 GRT, built 1920), Delilian (British, 6423 GRT, built 1923), Edward Ruthledge (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942), Empire Confidence (British, 5023 GRT, built 1925), Empire Mordred (British, 7024 GRT, built 1942), Fort McLoughlin (British, 7129 GRT, built 1942), Glenfinlas (British, 7479 GRT, built 1917), Havildar (British, 5401 GRT, built 1940), Hopecrown (British, 5180 GRT, built 1937), Jean Jadot (Belgian, 5859 GRT, built 1929), Lalande (British, 7453 GRT, built 1920), Lochmonar (British, 9412 GRT, built 1924), Lycaon (British, 7350 GRT, built 1913), Macharda (British, 7998 GRT, built 1938), Manchester Port (British, 7071 GRT, built 1935), Mark Twain (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Maron (British, 6487 GRT, built 1930), Mary Slessor (British, 5027 GRT, built 1930), Ocean Rider (British, 7178 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Viceroy (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Volga (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Wanderer (British, 7178 GRT, built 1942), Pacific Exporter (British, 6734 GRT, built 1928), Recorder (British, 5981 GRT, built 1930), Salacia (British, 5495 GRT, built 1937), Sobo (British, 5353 GRT, built 1937), St. Essylt (British, 5634 GRT, built 1941), Stanhill (British, 5969 GRT, built 1942), Tadorna (British, 1947 GRT, built 1928), Theseus (British, 6527 GRT, built 1908), Tiba (Dutch, 5239 GRT, built 1938), Urlana (British, 6852 GRT, built 1941), Walt Whitman (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), William M. Floyd (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), William Wirt (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942) and Zebulon B. Vance (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942).

Also part of the convoy were the landing ships Derwentdale (8390 GRT, built 1941), Dewdale (8265 GRT, built 1941) and Ennerdale (8280 GRT, built 1941).

On assembly the convoy was escorted by the escort carrier HMS Avenger (Cdr. A.P. Colthurst, RN), AA ship HMS Alynbank (A/Capt.(Retd.) H.F. Nash, RN), destroyer HMS Vansittart (Lt.Cdr. T. Johnston, RN), sloops HMS Deptford (Lt.Cdr. H.R. White, RN), HMS Stork (Cdr. G.N. Brewer, RN), corvettes HMS Convolvulus (A/Lt.Cdr. R.F.R. Yarde-Buller, RNVR), HMS Gardenia (T/Lt. M.M. Firth, RNVR), HMS Marigold (Lt. J.A.S. Halcrow, RD, RNR), HMS Pentstemon (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) J. Byron, DSC, RNR), HMS Rhododendron (Lt.Cdr. L.A. Sayers, RNR), HMS Samphire (Lt.Cdr. F.T. Renny, DSC, RNR), HMS Vetch (T/A/Lt.Cdr. H.J. Beverley, DSO, DSC, RNR), HMS Violet (Lt. C.N. Stewart, RNR) and the minesweepers HMS Acute (Lt.Cdr. D. Lampen, DSO, RN), HMS Alarm (T/Lt.Cdr. R. Patterson, SANF(V)), HMS Albacore (Lt.Cdr. J.D.L. Williams, RN) and HMS Cadmus (Lt.Cdr. J.B.G. Temple, DSC, RN).

Around 1000A/4, the convoy was split up into two sections KMS A1 and KMS O1. KMS A1 was destined for Algiers and KMS O1 was destined for Oran. KMS O1 then proceeded to the westwards so as to pass the Straits of Gibraltar later.

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Convoy KMS A 1.

Convoy KMS A 1 was to pass the Strait of Gibraltar around 2345A/5; it was made up of the transports; City of Worcester, Glenfinlas, Jean Jadot, Lalande, Lochmonar, Macharda, Manchester Port, Maron, Ocean Rider, Ocean Viceroy, Ocean Volga, Ocean Wanderer, Sobo, Stanhill, Tiba and Urlana.

The landing ships Dewdale and Ennerdale were also part of the convoy.

The convoy was escorted by the sloop HMS Stork, corvettes HMS Convolvulus, HMS Marigold, HMS Pentstemon, HMS Samphire [this corvette might have already parted company though, see below] and the minesweepers HMS Acute, HMS Alarm, HMS Albacore and HMS Cadmus.

Around 0700A/5, the corvette HMS Samphire arrived at Gibraltar with defects from convoy KMS A1.

Around 0800A/5, the minesweepers HMS Algerine (Lt.Cdr. W.A. Cooke, RN), HMS Hussar (Lt. R.C. Biggs, DSO, DSC, RN) and HMS Speedwell (Lt.Cdr. T.E. Williams, RNR) departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMS A1.

Around 1830A/5, the M/S trawlers HMS Cava (T/Lt. R.L. Petty-Major, RNVR), HMS Juliet (Lt. L.B. Moffatt, RNR), HMS Othello (T/Lt. S.C. Dickinson, RNVR), HMS Stroma (Skr. J.S. Harper, RNR), HMS Hoy (T/Lt. G.H. McNair, MBE, RNVR), HMS Inchcolm (Skr. A.C. Whitcombe, RNR), HMS Mull (Lt. J. Plomer, RCNVR), HMS Rysa (T/Lt. J.H. Cooper, RNVR) and the motor launches ML 238, ML 273, ML 283, ML 295, ML 307, ML 336, ML 338, ML 444 departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMS A1.

Around 2230A/5, the monitor HMS Roberts (Capt. J.G.Y. Loveband, RN), escort destroyers HMS Bicester (Lt.Cdr. S.W.F. Bennetts, RN), HMS Bramham (Lt. E.F. Baines, DSO, RN), HMS Cowdray (Lt.Cdr. C.W. North, RN), HMS Zetland (Lt. J.V. Wilkinson, RN) and the corvette HMS Samphire (with her repairs completed) departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMS A1.

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Convoy KMS O 1.

Convoy KMS O 1 was to pass the Strait of Gibraltar around 1630A/6; it was made up of the transports; Alcinous, Alphard, Benalbanach, Charles H. Cramp, Chattanooga City, Clan Mactaggart, Delinlian, Edward Rutledge, Empire Confidence, Empire Mordred, Havildar, Lycaon, Mark Twain, Mary Slessor, Pacific Exporter, Recorder, Salacia, St. Essylt, Thesues, Walt Whitman, William Floyd, William Wirt and Zebulon B. Vance.

The landing ship Derwentdale was also part of this convoy.

The convoy was escorted by the AA ship HMS Alynbank, sloop HMS Deptford, corvettes HMS Gardenia, HMS Rhododendron, HMS Vetch and HMS Violet.

Around 1500A/6, the minesweepers HMS Brixham (Lt. G.A. Simmers, RNR), HMS Bude (Lt. F.A.J. Andrew, RN), HMS Clacton (A/Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) L.S. Shaw, RNR) and HMS Felixstowe (T/Lt. C.G. Powney, RNVR) departed Gibraltar to join the convoy KMS O1.

After dark on the 6th, the M/S trawlers HMS Coriolanus (T/Lt. N. Hunt, RNVR), HMS Eday (T/Lt. W.Y. Surtees, RNR), HMS Inchmarnock (T/Lt. C.G.V. Corneby, RNR), HMS Kerrera (Skr. R.W. Slater, RNR) and the motor launches ML 280, ML 458, ML 463, ML 469, ML 471, ML 480, ML 483 and HDML 1127, HDML 1128 and HDML 1139 departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMS O1.

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Operation Crupper.

Two ships from Convoy KMS 1, the Ardeola and Tadorna formed part of Convoy KMS 1A after the convoy had split up. They were to proceed to Malta unescorted. The Admiralty had decided to make use of the expected confusion of the landings in North Africa to run two 'small' merchant ships with important cargo to Malta. These ships were considered expendable. They parted company with convoy KMS 1A on 8 November. They did not reach Malta however. When off Cape Bon on 9 November, they were taken under fire by Vichy French coastal batteries, despite the darkness, and then captured by motor torpedo boats. They were brought into Bizerta where their cargo was unloaded. The ships were later taken over by the Italians.

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Convoy KMF 1.

This convoy was assembled off Oversay on 26 October 1942.

It was made up of the following (troop) transports; Awatea (British, 13482 GRT, built 1936), Batory (Polish, 14287 GRT, built 1936), Cathay (British, 15225 GRT, built 1925), Dempo (Dutch, 17024 GRT, built 1931), Derbyshire (British, 11660 GRT, built 1935), Duchess of Bedford (British, 20123 GRT, built 1928), Durban Castle (British, 17388 GRT, built 1938), Ettrick (British, 11279 GRT, built 1938), Exceller (American, 6597 GRT, built 1941), Leinster (British, 4302 GRT, built 1937) Letitia (British, 13595 GRT, built 1925), Llangibby Castle (British, 11951 GRT, built 1929), Marnix van St. Aldegonde (Dutch, 19355 GRT, built 1930), Monarch of Bermuda (British, 22424 GRT, built 1931), Mooltan (British, 20952 GRT, built 1923), Nieuw Zeeland (Dutch, 11069 GRT, built 1928), Orbita (British, 15495 GRT, built 1915), Otranto (British, 20026 GRT, built 1925), Reina del Pacifico (British, 17702 GRT, built 1931), Sobieski (British, 11030 GRT, built 1939), Strathnaver (British, 22283 GRT, built 1931), Tegelberg (Dutch, 14150 GRT, built 1937), Viceroy of India (British, 19627 GRT, built 1929), Warwick Castle (British, 20107 GRT, built 1930) and Winchester Castle (British, 20012 GRT, built 1930).

The headquarters ships HMS Bulolo (Capt.(Retd.) R.L. Hamer, RN), HMS Largs (Cdr. E.A. Divers, OBE, RNR), the landing ships HMS Glengyle (Capt.(Retd.) D.S. McGrath, RN), HMS Karanja (Lt.Cdr.(Emgy.) D.S. Hore-Lacy, RN), HMS Keren (A/Cdr. S.E. Crewe-Read, RN), HMS Princess Beatrix (Cdr.(Retd.) T.B. Brunton, DSC, RN), HMS Queen Emma (Capt.(Retd.) G.L.D. Gibbs, DSO and Bar, RN), HMS Royal Scotsman (Lt.Cdr. J.D. Armstrong, DSC, RD, RNR), HMS Royal Ulsterman (A/Lt.Cdr. W.R.K. Clark, DSC, RD RNR) and HMS Ulster Monarch (Lt.Cdr. N.A.F. Kingscote, RNR) and the attack transports USS Almaack (T/Capt. C.L. Nichols, USN), USS Leedstown (Cdr. D. Cook, USNR), USS Samuel Chase (Capt. R.C. Heimer, USCG) and USS Thomas Stone (Capt. O.R. Bennehoff, USN) were also part of the convoy.

On assembly off Oversay on the 27th the convoy was escorted by the light cruiser HMS Sheffield (Capt. A.W. Clarke, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C.H.J. Harcourt, CBE, RN), escort carrier HMS Biter (Capt. E.M.C. Abel Smith, RN), destroyer HMS Clare (Lt.Cdr. L.H. Landman, RN), sloops HMS Aberdeen (Lt.Cdr. H. Day, RN), HMS Enchantress (Lt.Cdr. A.E.T. Christie, OBE, RN), HMS Ibis (Lt.Cdr. H.M. Darell-Brown, RN), cutters HMS Hartland (Lt.Cdr. G.P. Billot, RNR), HMS Walney (Lt.Cdr. P.C. Meyrick, RN), frigates HMS Exe (A/Cdr. M.A.O. Biddulph, DSC, RN), HMS Rother (Lt.Cdr. R.V.E. Case, DSC and Bar, RD, RNR), HMS Spey (Cdr. H.G. Boys-Smith, DSO and Bar, RD, RNR), HMS Swale (Lt.Cdr. J. Jackson, RNR) and HMS Tay (Lt.Cdr. R.E. Sherwood, RNR).

Around 1120A/2, the destroyers HrMs Isaac Sweers (Capt. W. Harmsen, RNN) and HMS Escapade (Cdr. E.N.V. Currey, DSC, RN) joined coming from the Azores.

Around 0200A/3, the AA ships HMS Palomares (A/Capt.(Retd.) J.H. Jauncey, RN), HMS Pozarica (Capt.(Retd.) L.B. Hill, DSO, OBE, RN) and the destroyers HMS Achates (Lt.Cdr. A.H.T. Johns, RN), HMS Antelope (Lt.Cdr. E.N. Sinclair, RN), HMS Amazon (Lt.Cdr.(Emgy.) Lord Teynham, RN), HMS Velox (Lt. G.B. Barstow, RN), HMS Verity, (Lt.Cdr. R. Horncastle, RN), HMS Westcott (Cdr. I.H. Bockett-Pugh, DSO, RN) and HMS Wishart (Cdr. H.G. Scott, RN) departed Gibraltar to join the convoy. At 1045A/3, the destroyer HMS Wivern (Cdr. M.D.C. Meyrick, RN) also departed to join the convoy. She had been unable to depart earlier due to defects.

Around 0800A/3, the destroyer HMS Marne (Lt.Cdr. H.N.A. Richardson, DSO, DSC, RN) joined the convoy coming from the Azores.

Around 1300A/3, the light cruiser HMS Jamaica (Capt. J.L. Storey, RN) also departed Gibraltar to join the convoy.

Around 1830Z/3, HMS Sheffield parted company with the convoy to proceed to Gibraltar where she arrived at 0815A/3, she was to fuel and then join ' Force O '.

Around noon on 4 November 1942, the convoy was split up into two sections KMF A1 and KMF O1. KMF A1 was destined for Algiers and KMF O1 was destined for Oran. KMF O1 then proceeded to the westwards so as to pass the Straits of Gibraltar later.

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Convoy KMF A 1.

Convoy KMF A 1 was to pass the Strait of Gibraltar around 0100A/6; it was made up of the (troop) transports; Almaack, Awatea, Cathay, Dempo, Ettrick, Exceller, Leedstown, Marnix van St. Aldegonde, Otranto, Sobieski, Strathnaver, Viceroy of India and Winchester Castle.

The headquarters ship HMS Bulolo and the landing ships HMS Karanja, HMS Keren, HMS Royal Scotsman, HMS Royal Ulsterman and Ulster Monarch and the attack transports USS Samuel Chase and USS Thomas Stone were also part of the convoy.

[exactly which ships of the escort went on with this part of the convoy will have to be researched further.]

In the morning of 5 November, HrMs Isaac Sweers parted company with the convoy to join ' Force H '. HMS Escapade and HMS Marne were apparently detached to Gibraltar on the convoy passing the Strait of Gibraltar.

Also on 5 November, the corvettes HMS Spiraea (Lt.Cdr. R.S. Miller, DSC, RNR) and HMS Jonquil (Lt.Cdr. R.E.H. Partington, RD, RNR) departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMF A1.

Around 0200A/6, the destroyers HMS Broke (Lt.Cdr. A.F.C. Layard, RN), HMS Malcolm (A/Cdr. A.B. Russell, RN), HMS Vanoc ( A/Cdr. C.F.H. Churchill, RN) and HMS Wrestler (Lt. R.W.B. Lacon, DSC, RN) departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMF A1 and relieve HMS Achates, HMS Antelope, HMS Amazon and HMS Wivern. After having been relieved these destroyers arrived at Gibraltar around 0545A/6. Also arriving at Gibraltar were the Leinster, HMS Royal Scotsman, HMS Royal Ulsterman and Ulster Monarch.

Around 1000A/6, HMS Broke, HMS Malcolm, HMS Vanoc and HMS Wrestler joined ' Force O ' while the screen on ' Force O ' joined the convoy, the destroyers / escort destroyers involved were ORP Blyskawica (Lt.Cdr. L. Lichodziejewski, ORP), HMS Lamerton (Lt.Cdr. C.R. Purse, DSC, RN), HMS Wheatland (Lt.Cdr. R. de L. Brooke, DSC, RN) and HMS Wilton (Lt. A.P. Northey, DSC, RN). The AA ship HMS Tynwald (Capt.(Retd.) P.G. Wodehouse, DSO, RN) also joined the convoy from ' Force O ' at the same time.

Around 0535A/7, in position 37°34'N, 00°01'W, the attack transport USS Thomas Stone was torpedoed and damaged by an enemy aircraft. HMS Spey remained with the damaged ship. At 2040A/7, the destroyers HMS Wishart and HMS Velox joined and the ship was taken in tow by HMS Wishart. HMS Spey by that time had departed with the ships 24 landing craft in which the ships troops had embarked. She was to escort them to Algiers but all had to be scuttled and the troops were taken on board HMS Spey. At 0535A/8 the tug St. Day joined which also passed a tow. The damaged ship anchored off Algiers around 1030A/11 being towed there by HMS Wishart and HMS St. Day.

Around 0725Z/7, HMS Clare parted company to join ' Force O ' which she did around 0913Z/7.

Around 1815A/7, the section destined for ' C Sector ' (Charlie Sector) parted company with the convoy. It was made up of the USS Almaack, USS Leedstown, USS Samuel Chase, Exceller and Dempo. With them were also transports from convoy KMS A1. They were escorted by the AA ship HMS Tynwald, escort destroyers HMS Cowdray, HMS Zetland, sloop HMS Enchantress, minesweepers HMS Algerine, HMS Hussar, HMS Speedwell, corvettes HMS Pentstemon, HMS Samphire, MS trawlers HMS Cava, HMS Othello and the motor launches HMS ML 273 and HMS ML 295. At 2135A/7, the beacon submarine HMS P 45 (Lt. H.B. Turner, RN) made contact with the force and the ships were guided to their positions for the landings. From convoy KMS A1 the transports Macharda and Maron were destined for Charlie sector. They were escorted by the sloop HMS Stork and the corvettes HMS Pentstemon and HMS Samphire.

Around 1900A/7, The remainder of convoy KMF A1 split into two sections, one for ' A Sector ' (Apple Sector) and one for ' B Sector ' (Beer Sector).

The force for ' A Sector ' was made up of HMS Karanja and the Marnix van St. Aldegonde and Viceroy of India. With them were also transports from convoy KMS A1. They were escorted by the AA ship HMS Pozarica, escort destroyers HMS Bicester, HMS Bramham, frigate HMS Rother, minesweeper HMS Cadmus, MS trawlers HMS Juliet, HMS Rysa, HMS Stroma and the motor launches HMS ML 283, HMS ML 336 and HMS ML 338. At 2214A/7, the made contact with their beacon submarine HMS P 221 (Lt. M.F.R. Ainslie, DSC, RN). A few minutes later they stopped and the landings commenced. From convoy KMS A1 the following ships were assigned to ' A Sector '; Dewdale, Lalande, Manchester Port, Ocean Viceroy and Ocean Wanderer. They were escorted by the corvettes HMS Convolvulus and HMS Marigold.

The force for ' B Sector ' was made up of HMS Bulolo, HMS Keren and the Awatea, Cathay, Otranto, Sobieski, Strathnaver and Winchester Castle. With them were also transports from convoy KMS A1. They were escorted by the AA ship HMS Palomeres, destroyer ORP Blyskawica, escort destroyers HMS Lamerton, HMS Wheatland, HMS Wilton, minesweepers HMS Acute, HMS Alarm, HMS Albacore, MS trawlers HMS Hoy, HMS Incholm, HMS Mull and the motor launches HMS ML 238, HMS ML 307 and HMS ML 444. They made contact with their beacon submarine HMS P 48 (Lt. M.E. Faber, RN) around 2220A/7 hours and landing operation commenced shortly afterwards. From convoy KMS A1 the following ships were assigned to ' A Sector '; City of Worcester, Ennerdale, Glenfinlas, Jean Jadot, Lochmonar, Ocean Rider, Ocean Volga, Sobo, Stanhill, Tiba and Urlana. They were escorted by the sloop HMS Stork and the corvettes HMS Pentstemon and HMS Samphire which then went on with the ships for the ' Charlie sector '.

On 9 November the ships involved in the landings anchored in Algiers Bay.

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Convoy KMF O 1.

Convoy KMF O 1 was to pass the Strait of Gibraltar around 2230A/6; it was made up of the (troop) transports; Batory, Duchess of Bedford, Durban Castle, Letitia, Llangibby Castle, Monarch of Bermuda, Mooltan, Nieuw Zeeland, Orbita, Reina del Pacifico, Tegelberg and Warwick Castle.

The headquarters ship HMS Largs and the landing ships HMS Glengyle, HMS Princess Beatrix and HMS Queen Emma were also part of the convoy.

Around 1950A/4, the light cruiser HMS Aurora (Capt. W.G. Agnew, CB, RN) departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMF O1.

For the landings at Oran three main beaches were selected. ' X ', ' Y ' and ' Z ' beach. There was also one subsidiary beach, ' R '.

The fast convoy, KMF O1, would, after passing through the Straits of Gibraltar make rendezvous with the slow convoy, KMS O1 in position 36°26'N, 01°15'W.

The convoys would then be diverted into nine groups, these were;
For ' X ' beach
Group I, 1st Division; Batory, HMS Princess Beatrix, Queen Emma, 2nd Division; Benalbenach, Mark Twain, Mary Slessor and Walt Whitman. They were escorted by the light cruiser HMS Aurora, destroyer HMS Wivern, corvettes HMS Gardenia, HMS Vetch and the motor launch HMS HDML 1139.
Group VIII, LST HMS Bachaquero (A/Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) A.W. McMullan, RNR) escorted by the M/S trawler HMS Horatio (T/Lt. C.A. Lemkey, RNR).

For ' Y ' beach
Group II; HMS Glengyle, Monarch of Bermuda, Llangibby Castle, Clan Mactaggart and Salacia. They were escorted by the destroyers Brilliant, HMS Verity, M/S trawlers HMS Coriolanus, HMS Eday, HMS Inchmarnock, HMS Kerrera and the motor launches HMS ML 458, HMS ML 463, HMS ML 469, HMS ML 471 and HMS HDML 1128.

For ' Z ' beach
Group III, 1st Division; Duchess of Bedford, Durban Castle, Ettrick, Warwick Castle. 2nd Division; Derwentdale, Reina del Pacifico and Tegelberg. They were escorted by the light cruiser HMS Jamaica, escort destroyers HMS Calpe (Lt.Cdr. H. Kirkwood, DSC, RN), HMS Farndale (Cdr. D.P. Trentham, RN), minesweepers HMS Brixham, HMS Bude, HMS Clacton, HMS Felixtowe, HMS Polruan (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) J.S. Landers, RNR), HMS Rothesay (Cdr. A.A. Martin, DSC, RD, RNR), HMS Rhyl (Cdr. L.J.S. Ede, DSO, RN), HMS Stornoway (T/A/Lt.Cdr. C.R. Fraser, RNR) and the motor launches HMS ML 280, HMS HDML 1127.

Group V; Alcinous, Alphard, Charles H. Cramp, Chatanooga City, Delilian, Recorder and Zebulon B. Vance. They were escorted by the sloop HMS Deptford, cutters HMS Hartland, HMS Walney, corvettes HMS Rhododendron, HMS Violet and the motor launches HMS ML 480 and HMS ML 483.

Group VI, 1st division; Derbyshire, Letitia, Mooltan and Nieuw Zeeland. 2nd division, Empire Confidence, Lycaon and Theseus.

Group VII, 1st division, Empire Mordred, Havildar, Pacific Exporter and St. Essylt. 2nd division; Edward Rutledge, William Floyd and William Wirt. Groups VI and VII were escorted by the light (AA) cruiser HMS Delhi (Capt. A.T.G.C. Peachey, RN), destroyer HMS Vansittart, sloop HMS Aberdeen and the frigates HMS Exe and HMS Swale.

Group IX; LST's HMS Misoa (T/Lt. K.G. Graham, RNR) and HMS Tasajera (Lt.Cdr. W.E. Gelling, DSC, RD, RNR). They were escorted by the M/S trawlers HMS Fluellen (T/Lt. B.J. Hampson, RNR), HMS Ronaldsay (T/Lt. A. Stirling, RNR) and HMS Shiant (T/Lt. A.C. Elton, RNR).

For ' R ' beach
Group IV; HMS Royal Scotsman, HMS Royal Ulsterman and HMS Ulster Monarch. They had the same escort as Group III.

Two submarines were stationed off the beaches as beacons, these were HMS Ursula (Lt. R.B. Lakin, DSC, RN) and HMS P 54 (Lt. C.E. Oxborrow, DSC, RN).

8 Nov 1942

The landings at Oran as part of Operation Torch

For the landings at Oran the Centre Naval Task Force was deployed.

This Task Force was made up of the following warships; battleship HMS Rodney (Capt. J.W. Rivett-Carnac, DSC, RN), aircraft carrier HMS Furious (Capt. T.O. Bulteel, RN), escort carriers HMS Biter (Capt. E.M.C. Abel Smith, RN), HMS Dasher (Cdr. C.N. Lentaigne, DSO, RN), light cruisers HMS Jamaica (Capt. J.L. Storey, RN), HMS Aurora (Capt. W.G. Agnew, CB, RN), AA cruiser HMS Delhi (Capt. A.T.G.C. Peachey, RN), AA ship HMS Alynbank (A/Capt.(Retd.) H.F. Nash, RN), destroyers HMS Boreas (Lt.Cdr. E.L. Jones, DSC, RN), HMS Brilliant (Lt.Cdr. A.G. Poe, RN), HMS Boadicea (Lt.Cdr. F.C. Brodrick, RN), HMS Bulldog (Cdr. M. Richmond, OBE, DSO, RN), HMS Beagle (Cdr. R.C. Medley, DSO, RN), HMS Amazon (Lt.Cdr.(Emgy.) Lord Teynham, RN), HMS Achates (Lt.Cdr. A.H.T. Johns, RN), HMS Antelope (Lt.Cdr. E.N. Sinclair, RN), HMS Wivern (Cdr. M.D.C. Meyrick, RN), HMS Westcott (Cdr. I.H. Bockett-Pugh, DSO, RN), HMS Verity, (Lt.Cdr. R. Horncastle, RN), HMS Vansittart (Lt.Cdr. T. Johnston, RN), escort destroyers HMS Avon Vale (Lt.Cdr. P.A.R. Withers, DSO, RN), HMS Farndale (Cdr. D.P. Trentham, RN), HMS Puckeridge (Lt. J.C. Cartwright, DSC, RN), HMS Calpe (Lt.Cdr. H. Kirkwood, DSC, RN), submarines HMS Ursula (Lt. R.B. Lakin, DSC, RN), HMS P 54 (Lt. C.E. Oxborrow, DSC, RN), minesweepers HMS Rhyl (Cdr. L.J.S. Ede, DSO, RN), HMS Felixstowe (T/Lt. C.G. Powney, RNVR), HMS Clacton (A/Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) L.S. Shaw, RNR), HMS Polruan (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) J.S. Landers, RNR), HMS Rothesay (Cdr. A.A. Martin, DSC, RD, RNR), HMS Stornoway (T/A/Lt.Cdr. C.R. Fraser, RNR), HMS Bude (Lt. F.A.J. Andrew, RN), HMS Brixham (Lt. G.A. Simmers, RNR), sloops HMS Aberdeen (Lt.Cdr. H. Day, RN), HMS Deptford (Lt.Cdr. H.R. White, RN), cutters HMS Hartland (Lt.Cdr. G.P. Billot, RNR), HMS Walney (Lt.Cdr. P.C. Meyrick, RN), frigates HMS Exe (A/Cdr. M.A.O. Biddulph, DSC, RN), HMS Swale (Lt.Cdr. J. Jackson, RNR), corvettes HMS Gardenia (T/Lt. M.M. Firth, RNVR), HMS Vetch (T/A/Lt.Cdr. H.J. Beverley, DSO, DSC, RNR), HMS Rhododendron (Lt.Cdr. L.A. Sayers, RNR), HMS Violet (Lt. C.N. Stewart, RNR), M/S trawlers HMS Coriolanus (T/Lt. N. Hunt, RNVR), HMS Fluellen (T/Lt. B.J. Hampson, RNR), HMS Horatio (T/Lt. C.A. Lemkey, RNR), HMS Eday (T/Lt. W.Y. Surtees, RNR), HMS Inchmarnock (T/Lt. C.G.V. Corneby, RNR), HMS Kerrera (Skr. R.W. Slater, RNR), HMS Shiant (T/Lt. A.C. Elton, RNR), HMS Ronaldsay (T/Lt. A. Stirling, RNR), motor launches ML 280, ML 458, ML 463, ML 469, ML 471, ML 480, ML 483 and the harbour defence motor launches HDML 1127, HDML 1128 and HDML 1139.

Also parted of the Centre Naval Task Force were the following amphibious ships; headquarters ship HMS Largs (Cdr. E.A. Divers, RNR, flying the flag of Commodore T.H. Troubridge, RN), landing ships infantery HMS Glengyle (Capt.(Retd.) D.S. McGrath, RN), HMS Princess Beatrix (Cdr.(Retd.) T.B. Brunton, DSC, RN), HMS Queen Emma (Capt.(Retd.) G.L.D. Gibbs, DSO and Bar, RN), HMS Royal Scotsman (Lt.Cdr. J.D. Armstrong, DSC, RD, RNR), HMS Royal Ulsterman (A/Lt.Cdr. W.R.K. Clark, DSC, RD RNR) and HMS Ulster Monarch (Lt.Cdr. N.A.F. Kingscote, RNR), RFA Derwentdale, landing ships tank HMS Bachaquero (A/Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) A.W. McMullan, RNR), HMS Misoa (T/Lt. K.G. Graham, RNR) and HMS Tasajera (Lt.Cdr. W.E. Gelling, DSC, RD, RNR).

Also parted of the Oran Attack Force were the ships in convoys KMS O1 and KMF O2.

Around 1700Z/6, convoy KMS O1 passed through the Straits of Gibraltar followed by convoy KMF O1 around 1830Z/6. These convoys then merged to the east of the Straits of Gibraltar. These convoys came direct from the U.K. and were made up of the following (troop) transports; Alcinous (Dutch, 6189 GRT, built 1925), Alphard (British, 5483 GRT, built 1937), Batory (Polish, 14287 GRT, built 1936), Benalbanach (British, 7153 GRT, built 1940), Charles H. Cramp (American, 6220 GRT, built 1920), Chattanooga City (American, 5687 GRT, built 1921), Clan Mactaggart (British, 7622 GRT, built 1920), Delinlian (British, 6423 GRT, built 1923), Duchess of Bedford (British, 20123 GRT, built 1928), Durban Castle (British, 17388 GRT, built 1938), Edward Rutledge (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942), Empire Confidence (British, 5023 GRT, built 1925), Empire Mordred (British, 7024 GRT, built 1942), Havildar (British, 5401 GRT, built 1940), Letitia (British, 13595 GRT, built 1925), Llangibby Castle (British, 11951 GRT, built 1929), Lycaon (British, 7350 GRT, built 1913), Mark Twain (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Mary Slessor (British, 5027 GRT, built 1930), Monarch of Bermuda (British, 22424 GRT, built 1931), Mooltan (British, 20952 GRT, built 1923), Nieuw Zeeland (Dutch, 11069 GRT, built 1928)), Orbita (British, 15495 GRT, built 1915), Pacific Exporter (British, 6734 GRT, built 1928), Recorder (British, 5981 GRT, built 1930), Reina del Pacifico (British, 17702 GRT, built 1931), Salacia (British, 5495 GRT, built 1937), St. Essylt (British, 5634 GRT, built 1941), Tegelberg (Dutch, 14150 GRT, built 1937), Thesues (British, 6527 GRT, built 1908), Walt Whitman (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Warwick Castle (British, 20107 GRT, built 1930), William Floyd (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), William Wirt (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942) and Zebulon B. Vance (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942).

Also part of these convoys was the headquarters ship HMS Largs and the landing ships infantery Glengyle, Queen Emma, Queen Beatrix, Royal Scotsman, Royal Ulsterman, Ulster Monarch and RFA Derwentdale.

From the above warships the following had come direct from the U.K. with convoys KMS 1 and KMF 1; escort carrier HMS Biter, AA ship HMS Alynbank, destroyer HMS Vansittart, sloops HMS Aberdeen, HMS Deptford, cutters HMS Hartland, HMS Walney, frigates HMS Exe, HMS Swale and the corvettes HMS Gardenia, HMS Rhododendron, HMS Vetch and HMS Violet.

On 2 November 1942, the minesweepers HMS Rhyl, HMS Clacton, HMS Polruan, HMS Rothesay and HMS Stornoway departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMS 1.

Around 0300A/3, the light cruiser HMS Jamaica departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMF 1 coming from the U.K.

Around 1950A/4, the light cruiser HMS Aurora departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMF O1.

Around 0430A/6, the battleship HMS Rodney and the destroyers HMS Bulldog, HMS Boreas and HMS Beagle departed Gibraltar as part of Force H.

Around 1500A/6, the destroyer HMS Vansittart, which had arrived at Gibraltar on the 5th, departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMS O1 with her were also the minesweepers HMS Bude, HMS Brixham and HMS Felixtowe.

A few hours later, shortly after dark on the 6th, the landing ships tank HMS Bachaquero, HMS Misoa and HMS Tasajera departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMS O1. They were escorted by the M/S trawlers HMS Fluellen, HMS Horatio, HMS Ronaldsay, HMS Shiant, HMS Coriolanus, HMS Eday, HMS Inchmarnock, HMS Kerrera, the motor launches ML 280, ML 458, ML 463, ML 469, ML 471, ML 480, ML 483 and the harbour defence motor launches HDML 1127, HDML 1128 and HDML 1139.

Around 2200A/6, the escort carrier HMS Dasher and the destroyers HMS Wivern, HMS Amazon, HMS Achates, HMS Antelope, HMS Boadicea and HMS Brilliant departed Gibraltar to join the convoys.

Around 0300A/7, the aircraft carrier HMS Furious, AA cruiser HMS Delhi and the escort destroyers HMS Farndale, HMS Avon Vale, HMS Calpe and HMS Puckeridge departed Gibraltar for the operation.

Around 0300A/7, the destroyers HMS Westcott and HMS Verity departed Gibraltar for the operation.

Landing beaches, Oran

The port of Oran, is situated at the head of a large bight between Cape Falcon, the rocky north-eastern end of the promontory of which Pointe Corales is the north-western extremity, to the west and Cap d'Aguille, to the east. This bight is divided into three bays of nearly equal size by Point Canastel and by Point Mers-el-Kebir which projects in an easterly direction from the foot of Jebel Santon and is surmounted by a powerful fortress. The heights of Jebel Murjajo lie westward of Oran with the conspicuous Fort Santa Cruz at their eastern end. The artificial harbour at Oran consists of six basins. It is protected on its northern side by a stone breakwater extending eastwards about a mile and a quarter from Pointe Mona on which, at the eastern end of the cliffs under Jebel Murjajo, lies Fort Lambourne.

The arrangement of landing beaches at Oran was comparatively simple and consisted of three main beaches; 'X', 'Y' and 'Z' and one subsidiary beach 'R'.

An armoured column from Combat Command 'B' would land at 'X' beach which lay at El Mrairia close to Cape Figalo, with orders to capture La Lourmel airfield, block the main roads north-east and south of La Lourmel, advance south of Debkra, and assist in the capture of the airfields at Tafraoui and Es Senia.

The 26th Regimental Combat Team would land at 'Y' beach near Les Andalouses with orders to take control of the Jebel Murjajo heights and capture Oran from the west.

The 18th Regimental Combat Team would land at 'Z-Green' beach near Arzew with the orders to capture the coastal defence, the port of Arzew and the port of Oran from the east. The 16th Regimental Combat Team would land at 'Z-White' beach to secure a bridgehead for Armoured Combat Command 'B', cover the east flank of the Oran Force and then take part in the capture of Oran.

Combat team 'B' would land at 'Z-Red' beach to capture Tafaraoui, Es Senia and Oggaz airfields and assist in capturing Oran from the south.

A portion of the First Ranger Battalion would made a subsidiary landing at 'R' beach southeast of Cape Carbon to capture the batteries at Fort la Ponte. The remainder of the battalion landed in Arzew harbour.

Meanwhile a parachute battalion was flown from the U.K. and dropped at H-hour near Tafaraoui airfield with orders to neutralise all aircraft on Es Senia airfield and capture Tafaraoui landing ground.

Instructions for Assault, Oran Beaches

The fast assault convoy, KMF O1, after proceeding through the Mediterranean at 11.5 knots under the orders of Commodore Troubridge, would meet the slow convoy, KMS O1, in position 36°26'N, 01°15'W around 1600A on 7 November 1942.

Here the convoys are split into nine groups; For ' X ' beach
Group I, 1st Division; Batory, HMS Princess Beatrix, Queen Emma, 2nd Division; Benalbenach, Mark Twain, Mary Slessor and Walt Whitman. They were escorted by the light cruiser HMS Aurora, destroyer HMS Wivern, corvettes HMS Gardenia, HMS Vetch and the motor launch HMS HDML 1139.
Group VIII, LST HMS Bachaquero escorted by the M/S trawler HMS Horatio.

For ' Y ' beach
Group II; HMS Glengyle, Monarch of Bermuda, Llangibby Castle, Clan Mactaggart and Salacia. They were escorted by the destroyers Brilliant, HMS Verity, M/S trawlers HMS Coriolanus, HMS Eday, HMS Inchmarnock, HMS Kerrera and the motor launches HMS ML 458, HMS ML 463, HMS ML 469, HMS ML 471 and HMS HDML 1128.

For ' Z ' beach
Group III, 1st Division; Duchess of Bedford, Durban Castle, Ettrick, Warwick Castle. 2nd Division; Derwentdale, Reina del Pacifico and Tegelberg. They were escorted by the light cruiser HMS Jamaica, escort destroyers HMS Calpe, HMS Farndale, minesweepers HMS Brixham, HMS Bude, HMS Clacton, HMS Felixtowe, HMS Polruan, HMS Rothesay, HMS Rhyl, HMS Stornoway and the motor launches HMS ML 280, HMS HDML 1127.

Group V; Alcinous, Alphard, Charles H. Cramp, Chatanooga City, Delilian, Recorder and Zebulon B. Vance. They were escorted by the sloop HMS Deptford, cutters HMS Hartland, HMS Walney, corvettes HMS Rhododendron, HMS Violet and the motor launches HMS ML 480 and HMS ML 483.

Group VI, 1st division; Derbyshire, Letitia, Mooltan and Nieuw Zeeland. 2nd division, Empire Confidence, Lycaon and Theseus.

Group VII, 1st division, Empire Mordred, Havildar, Pacific Exporter and St. Essylt. 2nd division; Edward Rutledge, William Floyd and William Wirt. Groups VI and VII were escorted by the AA cruiser HMS Delhi, destroyer HMS Vansittart, sloop HMS Aberdeen and the frigates HMS Exe and HMS Swale.

Group IX; LST's HMS Misoa and HMS Tasajera. They were escorted by the M/S trawlers HMS Fluellen, HMS Ronaldsay and HMS Shiant.

For ' R ' beach
Group IV; HMS Royal Scotsman, HMS Royal Ulsterman and HMS Ulster Monarch. They had the same escort as Group III.

Two submarines were stationed off the beaches as beacons, these were HMS Ursula and HMS P 54.

HMS Aurora would be stationed ahead of Group II, HMS Jamaica ahead of Group III and HMS Delhi ahead of Group IV. On reaching position 35°52'N, 00°10'5"W, in the Gulf of Arzew, HMS Jamaica would proceed independently for fire support duty off 'Z' beach. On reaching position 35°48'N, 00°54'W, HMS Aurora was also detached from her group to patrol to the north of Mers-el-Kebir to engage, if needed reinforced by HMS Jamaica, any escaping vessels from Mers-el-Kebir during the darkness. During daylight HMS Aurora was to remain outside the range of the shore batteries. Meanwhile around 0400A/8, HMS Delhi, would leave her group to meet the aircraft carriers at 0530A/8 in position 36°07'N, 00°45'W so as to provide additional AA protection.

The battleship HMS Rodney, escorted by HMS Bulldog, HMS Boreas and HMS Beagle, detached from Force H, was to protect the anchorage from attack by heavy enemy units. She too was to join the carriers around 0530A/8.

Initial landings were to be made at all beaches simultaneously at H-hour with the follow up forces being landed as soon as possible.

Oran attack opens, 8 November 1942.

The attack opened, after some delay at 0116A/8. The assault on 'X' beach was delayed by around 35 minutes due to the strong current. The appearance of a small Vichy-French convoy of four ships escorted by a trawler had also caused some delay. One of the merchant vessels, the Eridan (9928 GRT, built 1929) had sabotaged her engines. She was boarded by an armed guard. The other three merchant vessels, the Agen (4186 GRT, built 1921), Carthage (2440 GRT, built 1897) and Montaigne (2770 GRT, built 1920) initially escaped to the north-east but then ran into Allied forces. They then beached themselves south of Cape Figalo.

The appearance of the convoy had the effect that the minesweepers were badly delayed and were almost run over by the ships proceeding to 'X' beach. The minesweepers were then ordered to keep clear and no sweep was carried out ahead of the ships proceeding to 'X' beach.

Despite some delays and other difficulties [it would go to far to give a full account of the landings here] that landings were successful.

HMS Walney's assault on Oran harbour.

It had been decided, that the cutters HMS Walney and HMS Hartland were to attack Oran harbour to prevent the French from performing demolition operations to destroy the ports facilities. They were to attack shortly after 0300A/8.

The cutters were to land American troops and anti-sabotage parties with orders to seize the shore batteries covering the harbour, prevent the scuttling of the dock and harbour works and prevent the blockage of the harbour. The motor launches ML 480 and ML 483 were to provide a smoke screen. HMS Aurora was to provide cover fire if needed and also to distract and confuse the shore batteries.

The attack was carried out under the command of A/Capt. (Retd.) F.T. Peters, DSO, DSC, RN, which was embarked on board HMS Walney. The attack commenced at 0245A/8, when HMS Walney and HMS Hartland with ML 480 and ML 483 in company, approached the harbour entrance. Sirens were heard sounding ashore and all lights in the town had been extinguished. For a time the force circled off the entrance while an announcement was made in French by loud hailer from HMS Walney. The reply was hostile. A searchlight was quickly trained on the Walney and she came under a heavy, though inaccurate, machine gun fire. Followed by the Hartland, she at once turned away northwards coming round in a full circle to charge the booms. At the same time ML 480 went on ahead to full speed, laying a smoke screen, but hit the outer boom, coming to rest under heavy fire half way across it. She got off again at 0310A/8, just as HMS Walney, after completing her circle, charged the two booms at 15 knots, through the smoke and entered the harbour. On reaching it, A/Capt. Peters, slipped three canoes, manned with special parties, but at least one of the was sunk almost immediately by gunfire.

HMS Walney herself was steaming up the harbour to westwards at slow speed was hit by pompom fire from the Ravin Blanc battery. Half way up the harbour she narrowly missed ramming a French destroyer proceeding towards the harbour entrance. It raked her with two broadsides from point blank range, wrecking her main engines, and a few minutes later she came under heavy cross fire from the destroyer Epervier laying alongside to the south and from submarines and destroyers moored to the northward. At last, blazing forward and amidships, she drifted out of control bows on to the jetty ahead of the Epervier. An attempt to get heaving lines ashore failed and she drifted once more slowly out into the harbour. Her guns were out of action, their crew virtually wiped out. Sixteen officers and men were lying dead on her bridge where A/Capt. Peters was the sole survivor. Below only five officers and men of the landing parties remained alive amidst scenes of undescridale carnage. Nothing further could be done and the ship was abandoned, her few survivors, including A/Capt. Peters were taken prisoner. The abandoned wreck rolled over shortly afterwards.

HMS Hartland's assault on Oran harbour.

When HMS Walney entered Oran harbour at 0310A/8, Lt.Cdr. Billot waited five minutes, in compliance with his orders, before heading towards the harbour entrance. As she approached the smoke screen laid by ML 480, HMS Walney was picked up by a searchlight, and came under a devastating fire from the Ravin Blanc battery which killed nearly all her guns crews and temporarily blinded Lt.Cdr. Billot with a splinter. Before he recovered his sight the ship struck the breakwater, but eventually she entered the harbour and made for her objective, the Quai de Dunkerque, under gunfire from point blank range from the destroyer Typhon laying alongside it. Shells bursting inside her hull brought her to a standstill turning her mess decks, on which the troops were waiting, into shambles. Then with fires raging fore and aft, she drifted alongside the mole but she almost immediately was blown back into the harbour where she anchored while being under heavy fire from the French but these then ceased fire so that the ship could be abandoned. By 0410A/8, all survivors had left and at 0525A/8 there was an explosion on board but she remained afloat buring furiously. She later blew up and sank after a huge explosion which caused damage to buildings in a large area around the mole.

Oran captured.

While HMS Walney and HMS Hartland were gate-crashing into Oran Harbour, HMS Aurora was patrolling five miles away to the northward. At 0527A/8, she opened fire on the searchlight illuminating HMS Hartland, successfully extinguishing its beam. Then shortly before first light she engaged and disabled a Vichy-French destroyer of the Simoun-class from a range of 6000 yards. This destroyer later sank and appears to have been the Tramontaine.

Around 0600A/8, two more destroyers of the Simoun-class were seen leaving Oran, but seeing that they were standing by their sinking consort, HMS Aurora for a time withheld her fire. These destroyers were however soon in action with HMS Boadicea and HMS Calpe, and when they fired torpedoes at HMS Aurora she too opened fire from 13600 yards. In the ensuing fight HMS Boadicea was hit forward, and one of the French destroyers, being severely damaged and set on fire by a broadside, was driven inshore [this was the Tornade]. The action ended abruptly at 0727A/8, when the other destroyer, on being hit aft, turned and fled to the direction of Oran [this was the Typhon]. Meanwhile the sloop / minelayer La Surprise was sunk by HMS Brilliant around 0630A/8.

Aircraft from HMS Furious, HMS Biter and HMS Dasher had meanwhile attacked airfield destroying enemy aircraft on the ground and also in the air with only small losses to themselves.

Shore batteries managed to hit the Reina del Pacifico and Llangibby Castle. HMS Rodney proceeded closer inshore and opened fire at 1010A/8 on the Jebel Santon battery from a range of over 20000 yards. The battery was engaged several times during the day before HMS Rodney retired to seaward again.

Fighting continued on 9 November 1942. At 1024A/9, HMS Jamaica and HMS Aurora engaged the Epervier and Typhon. The Epervier was driven ashore in flames south of Cape de l'Aiguille while the Typhon retired to Oran where she too was beached.

The Vichy-French at Oran capitulated around noon on the 10th. (3)

11 Jun 1943

Operation Corkscrew.

Capture of Pantellaria and Lampedusa.

From Sfax, ' Convoy A ' sailed for the landings on Pantelleria. This convoy was made up the headquarters ship HMS Largs (Cdr. E.A. Divers, OBE, RNR, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral R.R. McGregor, RN), landing ships HMS Princess Beatrix (Cdr.(Retd.) T.B. Brunton, DSC, RN) and HMS Queen Emma (Capt.(Retd.) G.L.D. Gibbs, DSO and Bar, RN). They were escorted by the escort destroyers HMS Eggesford (Lt.Cdr. D.W. Austin, RN), HMS Lauderdale (Lt. G.D. Pound, DSC, RN) and HMS Whaddon (Lt.Cdr. J.B. Palmer, RN).

From Sousse, departed ' Convoy B ' and ' Convoy C '.
' Convoy B ' was made up of the landing ship HMS Royal Ulsterman (Lt.Cdr. W.R.K. Clark, DSC, RD RNR), 20 LCI(L)'s and 2 ML's. They were escorted by the escort destroyers HMS Lamerton (Lt.Cdr. C.R. Purse, DSC and Bar, RN) and HMS Wheatland (Lt.Cdr. R.deL. Brooke, DSO, DSC and Bar, RN).
' Convoy C ' was made up of landing ship HMS Misoa (Lt.Cdr. J.W. Grace, DSC, RD, RNR), gunboat HMS Aphis ( Lt.Cdr. F.Y. Bethell, RN), and 21 LCI(L)'s, 4 LCF's and 2 ML's. They were escorted by the minesweepers HMS Clacton (A/Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) L.S. Shaw, RNR), HMS Polruan (Lt. C.D. Sampson, RNVR), HMS Rhyl (Cdr. L.J.S. Ede, DSO, RN), HMS Stornoway (T/A/Lt.Cdr. C.R. Fraser, RNR) and the M/S trawlers HMS Hoy (T/Lt. G.H. McNair, MBE, RNVR), HMS Inchcolm (Skr. A.C. Whitcombe, RNR), HMS Mull (T/Lt. R.R. Simpson, RNR) and HMS Rysa (T/Lt. J.H. Cooper, RNVR).

From Malta departed the bombardment / cover force which was made up of the light cruisers HMS Aurora (Commodore W.G. Agnew, CB, RN), HMS Newfoundland (Capt. W.R. Slayter, DSC, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C.H.J. Harcourt, CBE, RN), HMS Orion (Capt. G.C.P. Menzies, RN), HMS Penelope (Capt. G.D. Belben, DSC, AM, RN) and the destroyers HMS Laforey (Capt. R.M.J. Hutton, DSO, RN), HMS Lookout (Lt.Cdr. A.G. Forman, DSC, RN), HMS Loyal (Lt.Cdr. H.E.F. Tweedie, DSC, RN), HMS Jervis (Capt. A.F. Pugsley, DSO, RN), HMS Nubian (Cdr. D.E. Holland-Martin, DSC, RN) and HMS Tartar (Cdr. St.J.R.J. Tyrwhitt, DSC, RN), HMS Troubridge (Capt. C.L. Firth, MVO, RN) and RHS Vasilissa Olga (Lt.Cdr. G. Blessas).

Eight motor torpedo boats and / or motor gun boats were also set to patrol in the area.

All forces sailed on 10 June to be off Pantellaria on 11 June 1944.

A final bombardment was then carried out and also aircraft from North African air bases carried out attacks. The island surrendered shortly before noon without further fighting. Rear-Admiral McGregor transferred his flag to HMS Tartar. HMS Largs, landing ships, landing craft and escorts were then ordered to proceed to Sousse.

The cruisers and fleet destroyers then proceeded to Lampedusa. Bombandment of that island commenced at 2245/11 and continued throughout the 12th. Also air bombardments were carried out. The island surrendered in the evening.

Weather was to bad to land at Lampion Island but the island appeared to be uninhabited.

The surrender of Linosa Island was accepted by HMS Nubian.

The forces that were still at sea were then dispersed. (4)

17 Aug 1945

Operations Jurist and Beecham.

In the morning a big portion of the Eastern Fleet departed Trincomalee for ' Operation Jurist ' which was were the intended landings at Penang and ' Operation Beecham '. were intended landings at Sabang. Borth operations were part of the planned, larger, ' Operation Zipper ' which was the occupation of Malaya including Singapore. (Note, some of the Forces listed below had departed Ceylon earlier then 17 August).

The Fleet was organised into six Forces;
Force 11 was made up of the battleship HMS Nelson (Capt. C. Caslon, CBE, RN, flying the flag of Vice Admiral H.C.T. Walker, CB, RN), light cruiser HMS Nigeria (Capt. H.A. King, DSO, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN), escort carriers HMS Attacker (Capt. G.F. Renwick, RN), HMS Hunter (Capt. A.D. Torlesse, RN), HMS Stalker (Capt. L.C. Sinker, DSC, RN), HMS Shah (Capt. W.J. Yendell, RN), destroyers HMS Tartar (Capt. B. Jones, DSO and Bar, DSC, RN), HMS Petard (Lt.Cdr. R.L. Caple, DSC, RN) and HMS Volage (Cdr. R.T. Paul, CBE, RN) and the landing ships HMS Princess Beatrix (A/Cdr. J. Stretch, RD, RNR) and HMS Queen Emma (A/Cdr. T.L. Alkin, RN).

Force 12 was made up of the destroyers HMS Verulam (Lt.Cdr. D.H.R. Bromley, DSC, RN), HMS Vigilant (Lt.Cdr. L.W.L. Argles, DSC, RN) and 8 BYMS type minesweepers from the 166th Minesweeping Flotilla; HMS BYMS 2060 (T/Lt. R. Conde, RNVR), HMS BYMS 2162 (A/Skr.Lt. W. Sutherland, RNR), HMS BYMS 2168 (T/Lt. R.O. Tyrer, RNVR), HMS BYMS 2181 (T/A/Lt.Cdr. H.C. Butcher, RNVR), HMS BYMS 2203 (T/Lt. D.A. Turner, RNVR), HMS BYMS 2204 (T/Lt. R.A. Latrielle, RNVR), HMS BYMS 2232 (T/Lt. J. Mason, DSC, RNVR) and HMS BYMS 2236 (T/A/Lt.Cdr. W.C. Cooper, RNVR).

Force 13 was made up of the destroyer HMS Penn (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Diack, DSC, RN) and the tank landing ship HMS LST 383 (A/Lt.Cdr. H.B. Cadogan, RNR). The LST was loaded with motor transport.

Force 14 was made up of the escort destroyer HMS Calpe (A/Lt.Cdr. N.F.R. Gill, RNR) and the chartered tanker (RFA) Empire Salvage (British (tanker) 10746 GRT, built 1940)

Force 68 was made up of the heavy cruiser HMS London (Capt. S.L. Bateson, RN, flying the Broad Pendant of Commodore A.L. Poland, CB, DSO and Bar, DSC, RN) and the destroyers HMS Raider (Lt.Cdr. J.C. Cartwright, DSC, RN) and HMS Rocket (Lt.Cdr. H.B. Acworth, OBE, RN).

Force 157 was made up of the sloop HMIS Godavari (A/Cdr. H.M.S. Choudry, RIN), repair ship HMS Mull of Galloway (cdr. E.C. Hicks, RD, RNR), depot ship HMIS Barracuda (T/A/Cdr. L.G. Bingham, RINR), chartered gasoline tanker Cromwell (British, 1124 GRT, built 1943), 26 motor launches (ML's) of the 34th Flotilla; ML 194 (T/A/Lt.Cdr. L.F.W. Morley, RNVR), ML 187 (T/Lt. H.L. Langley, RNVR), ML 189 (T/Lt. W.J. Court, RNVR), ML 193 (T/Lt. J.T.C. Hastings, RNVR), ML 214 (T/Lt. B.H. Taylor, RNVR), ML 230 (T/Lt. J.K. Cook, RNVR), ML 245 (T/Lt. J Winthorpe-Young, RNVR), ML 907 (T/Lt. H W Perring, RNVR), ML 923 (T/Lt. S.E. Fowler, RNVR), 38th Flotilla; ML 851 (?), ML 850 (?), ML 897 (?), ML 898 (?), ML 899 (?), ML 900 (?), ML 4001 (?), ML 4002 (?), 56th Flotilla; ML 412 (T/Lt. J. Kent, RNVR, with T/A/Lt.Cdr. A.J. Howard, RINVR on board), ML 390 (T/S.Lt. J.H. Birtwhistle, RINVR), ML 413 (T/Lt. L.C.A. Green, RINVR [???]), ML 416 (T/Lt. A.J. Adam, RINVR), ML 417 (T/Lt. R.H. Kilbey, RINVR), ML 419 (T/Lt. L.C.A. Green, RINVR [???]), ML 843 (?), ML 844 (?), ML 872 (?) and 9 harbour defence motor launches (HDML's) from the 110th Flotilla; HMDL 1105 (T/Lt. H.J. Stanley, KRNVR), HDML 1080 (T/S.Lt. C. Turnbull, RNVR), HDML 1082 (T.S.Lt. R.S. Franck, SANF(V)), HDML 1086 (T/S.Lt. R.A.J. Webb, RNVR), HDML 1098 (), HDML 1106 (Lt. F.H. Barnes, KRNVR), HDML 1107 (T/S.Lt. F.J. Marks, RNVR), HDML 1108 (T/S.Lt. K.S. Ingram, RNVR) and HDML 1150 (T/Lt. R.R. Harvey, SANF(V)).

It was while these forces were on passage eastward that delays in negotiations with the Japanese, and in the arrival of the Japanese Emperor's orders to case hostilities in South East Asia became apparent. The day set for the landings had, therefore, to be postponed and on 20th August all forces concentrated at Trinkat Champlong on the north east coast of Great Nicobar Island. This bay provided shelter from wind and swell, and ML's, HDML'S and the BYMS minesweepers were able to refuel at the anchorage while larger units remained at sea in the immediate vicinity.

By this time it had also become apparent that no landings in this theatre would be permitted by the Allied High Command until the final instrument of surrender had been signed at Tokyo. According, all plans had to be adjusted.

Any operations to the southward of the One Fathom Bank in the Malacca Straits were dependent on establishing a safe channel through the minefield in the area, so all available fleet minesweepers were sailed from Ceylon on 15 August to proceed eastward. These consisted of 4 fleet minesweepers and 2 danlayers of the 6th M/S Flotilla; HMS Friendship (Cdr. D.L. Johnston, RN), HMS Lennox (T/A/Lt.Cdr. C.H. Walton, RNR), HMS Lightfoot (T/A/Lt.Cdr. A.S. Drysdale, RNVR), HMS Persian (Lt.Cdr. J.L. Woollcombe, RN), HMS Imersay (T/A/Lt.Cdr. J.H.A. Winfield, RNR) and HMS Lingay (T/Lt. P.W. Jequier, RNVR) as well as 7 fleet minesweepers of the 37th M/S Flotilla; – HMIS Orissa (T/Lt. C.S. Ahmad, RINR, with A/Cdr. G. Bailey, RIN on board), HMIS Rajputana (A/Lt.Cdr. A. Chakraverti, RIN), HMIS Kathiawar (T/Lt. R.J. Ward, RINR), HMIS Oudh (T/Lt. K.Y. Eccles, RINVR), HMIS Khyber (T/Lt. W.D.F. Clayton, RINR), HMIS Baluchistan (T/Lt. N.N. Pettitt, RINR) and HMIS Kumaon (T/Lt. U.J.S. Chopra, RINR).

On 17th August, the fleet minesweepers HMS Pelorus (Lt.Cdr. F.J. Bourgat, RN, with A/Capt.(Retd.) R.H.V. Sivewright, DSC, RN) and HMS Gozo (Lt.Cdr. T.T. Euman, RN) departed Colombo to overtake the 6th M/S Flotilla. They were joined by the fleet minesweeper HMIS Bengal (T/A/Lt.Cdr. W.L. Scurr, RINVR) and the RFA tanker Cherryleaf (5896 GRT, built 1917) from Trincomalee. HMS Gozo however returned to Trincomalee on 23 August with condenser trouble.

The above fleet minesweepers and attendant oiler were subsequently formed into Force 155.

In view of the delays already referred to above, the fleet minesweepers were ordered to proceed to the lee of Simalur Island, the most northerly of the chain of islands off the west coast of Sumatra, where they anchored in Lugu Sibabu PM on 22 August.

On 25 August the RFA tanker Orangeleaf (5927 GRT, built 1917) departed Colombo to join Force 155. On the 26th the fleet minesweepers HMS Melita (T/A/Lt.Cdr. G.R. May, RNR), HMIS Rohilkhand (?) and HMIS Carnatic (T/Lt. A.E.B. Park, RINR) also sailed from Colombo to augment Force 155 and were joined by HMS Gozo from Trincomalee which had made repairs there but now HMIS Carnatic had to return with defects.

A meeting of was held at Rangoon on 26 August 1945, in which representatives of the Supreme Allied commander, South East Asia and plenipotentiaries from the Japanese Southern Area Command.

As a result of this meeting all ships left their concentration points at Great Nicobar Island and Simalur on 27th August.

Vice Admiral Walker, CB with Force 11 and Commodore Poland with Force 68 anchored off Penang and Sabang respectively AM on 28 August. The remainder of the forces arrived off the Malayan shore on 29th August. Bad weather forced the small ships to anchor in the lee of Langkawi Island.

Also on 27 August 1945 more fleet minesweepers had departed Ceylon to join Force 155. These were HMS Recruit (A/Cdr. A.E. Doran, DSC, RN), HMS Chameleon (T/A/Lt.Cdr. D.P. Richardson, RNVR), HMS Pincher (T/A/Lt.Cdr. C.B. Blake, RNVR), HMS Plucky (T/A/Lt.Cdr. G. Wallis, RNVR), HMS Rifleman (Lt. C.L. Carroll, DSC, RNR), HMIS Punjab(Lt. A.V. Baker, RIN) and HMS Deccan (?) and HMIS Bihar (T/Lt. J. Vendrell, RINR).

Senior Japanese officers at Penang came on board HMS Nelson on 28 August and signed an agreement that no attack would be made on the Fleet. Further meetings were held on the 29th, 30th and 31st. The Japanese proved cooperative and provided the necessary information relative to their minefields, including those at Singapore and other areas.

All arrangements were completed for the occupation of Penang and preparations made to land as soon as the instrument of surrender was signed at Tokyo. On 30th August, BYMS minesweepers began to sweep the northern approach channel to the harbour.

At Sabang, guarantees and information similar to that obtained at Penang were supplied by the Japanese during meetings on board HMS London. Arrangements were also made for all Japanese forces and Sumatran coolies to evacuate Pulu-Wei and proceeded to Kota Raja on the Sumatran mainland.

On 27 August, the Commander in Chief, East Indies, Admiral Sir A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, departed Colombo in HMS Cleopatra (Capt. B.I. Robertshaw, CBE, RN) arriving at Sabang on 29th August, and subsequently proceeding to Penang.

Sources

  1. ADM 199/396 + ADM 199/399
  2. ADM 199/395
  3. ADM 234/359
  4. ADM 199/639

ADM numbers indicate documents at the British National Archives at Kew, London.


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