Allied Warships

HMS Unseen (P 51)

Submarine of the U class

NavyThe Royal Navy
TypeSubmarine
ClassU 
PennantP 51 
Built byVickers Armstrong (Barrow-in-Furness, U.K.) 
Ordered23 Aug 1940 
Laid down30 Jul 1941 
Launched16 Apr 1942 
Commissioned2 Jul 1942 
End service1 Nov 1945 
History

Decommissioned on 1 November 1945
Scrapped at Hayle in September 1949.

 

Commands listed for HMS Unseen (P 51)

Please note that we're still working on this section.

CommanderFromTo
1Lt. Michael Lindsay Coulton Crawford, DSC, RNJun 194220 Mar 1944
2Lt. Richard Thomas Sallis, RN20 Mar 194416 Apr 1944
3T/Lt. Terence Douglas Wood, DSC, RNVR16 Apr 19445 Feb 1945
4Lt. John Arthur Cross, RCNVR5 Feb 194515 Sep 1945
5Lt. Ian Macfarlane Stoop, DSC, RN15 Sep 19451 Nov 1945

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Notable events involving Unseen include:


The history of HMS P 51 / Unseen as compiled on this page is extracted the from patrol reports and logbooks of this submarine. Corrections and details regarding information from the enemy's side (for instance the composition of convoys attacked) is kindly provided by Mr. Platon Alexiades, a naval researcher from Canada.

This page was last updated in July 1945.

1 Jul 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed her builders yard at Barrow for Holy Loch. She was escorted by HMS Cutty Sark (Cdr.(retired) R.H. Mack, RN).

Lt. Crawford had been Wanklyn’s First Lieutenant on HMS Upholder. (1)

2 Jul 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) arrived at Holy Loch to begin a period of trials and training. (1)

27 Jul 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Holy Loch for Lerwick. She made the passage together with HMS P 247 (Lt. M.G.R. Lumby, RN). The submarines were escorted by HMS Cutty Sark (Cdr.(retired) R.H. Mack). (1)

29 Jul 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) arrived at Lerwick. After taking on board fuel and fresh provisions she proceeded on her 1st war patrol. This was a work-up patrol in the Norwegian Sea.

For the daily positions of HMS P 51 during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

5 Aug 1942
While surfacing for a sun sight, HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), damaged 'Q' tank due to an error in drill. (2)

6 Aug 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) was ordered to return to Lerwick. (2)

7 Aug 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 1st war patrol at Lerwick. She departed for Scapa Flow, escorted by HMS Loch Monteith (T/Lt. K.W. Richardson, RNR), later the same day. (1)

8 Aug 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) arrived at Scapa Flow where the damage to 'Q' tank was inspected. (1)

11 Aug 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Scapa Flow for Methill where she was to join convoy FS 80 for onward passage to Chatham.

During the passage from Scapa Flow to Methill P 51 was escorted by HMS Leicester City (T/Lt. C.E. Irving, RNVR). (1)

12 Aug 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) arrived off Methill. (1)

13 Aug 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Methill for Sheerness. She made the passage in convoy FS 80. (1)

15 Aug 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) arrived at Sheerness. She then proceeded to the Chatham Dockyard where she was to be taken in hand for repairs to her damaged 'Q' and battery tanks. (1)

15 Sep 1942
With her repairs completed, HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), shifted from Chatham to Sheerness. (3)

17 Sep 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Sheerness for Portsmouth. She made the passage together with HMS Unbeaten (Lt. D.E.O. Watson, DSC, RN). They were escorted by HMS Bungay. (3)

18 Sep 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) arrived at Portsmouth. (3)

20 Sep 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Portsmouth for Gibraltar.

For the daily positions of HMS P 51 during this passage see the map below.

(2)

22 Sep 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) proceeded to Falmouth to seek medical attention for the first lieutenant which was suffering from severe haemorrhage that could not be stopped.

P 51 was escorted in by HMS ML 179. (2)

23 Sep 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) resumed her passage to Gibraltar. She was escorted out of Falmouth by HMS ML 186 and HMS ML 259. (2)

4 Oct 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) arrived at Gibraltar. (2)

12 Oct 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) conducted exercises off Gibraltar. (4)

13 Oct 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) conducted exercises off Gibraltar together with HMS Verity (Lt.Cdr. R. Horncastle, RN). (4)

14 Oct 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) conducted exercises off Gibraltar together with HMS Verity (Lt.Cdr. R. Horncastle, RN). (4)

16 Oct 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Gibraltar for her 2nd war patrol (1st in the Mediterranean). She was to perform a work-up patrol in the Alboran Sea. Before departing for patrol exercises were carried out with HMS P 48 (Lt. M.E. Faber, RN).

For the daily positions of HMS P 51 during this patrol see the map below.

(4)

23 Oct 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 2nd war patrol (1st in the Mediterranean) at Gibraltar. (4)

1 Nov 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Gibraltar for her 3rd war patrol (2nd in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol off Toulon, Southern France, taking the place of HMS P 228 (Lt. I.L.M. McGeogh, RN) which had developed telemotor problems with her after hydroplanes and had returned to Gibraltar.

For the daily positions of HMS P 51 during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

13 Nov 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) is detected and depth charged by a Vichy French patrol vessel about 10 nautical miles south-west of Toulon, France in position 42°58'N, 05°49'E.

(All times are zone -1)
1500 hours - Sighted the Vichy French 'Elan'-class patrol vessel / minesweeper that had been sighted earlier in the day returning to our area. Position was 42°58'N, 05°49'E.

1520 hours - The patrol vessel crossed our bow at a range of 2000 yards.

1530 hours - The patrol vessel altered course to the northward.

1550 hours - The patrol vessel was now proceeding at slow speed at a range of only 400 yards. Went deep immediately.

1551 hours - 5 depth charges were dropped very close. P 51 was taken to 120 feet but could not be held at that depth. 'Q' tank had been damaged and was now full of water as was 'H' tank. Unseen was sinking fast and was finally held at 345 feet by blowing no.1 and no.6 main ballast. 'Q' tank was damaged, the outboard vent had been blown open by the depth charges.

1555 hours - 6 more depth charges were dropped also rather close. Fortunately no more depth charges were dropped after these.

1955 hours - Surfaced. (2)

14 Nov 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) was ordered to return to Gibraltar. (2)

21 Nov 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 3rd war patrol (2nd in the Mediterranean) at Gibraltar. (2)

24 Nov 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) is docked at Gibraltar for repairs to 'Q' tank. (5)

26 Nov 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) is undocked. (5)

4 Dec 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Gibraltar for passage to Malta.

For the daily positions of HMS P 51 during this passage see the map below.

(2)

6 Dec 1942
At 0210 hours (zone -1), HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), sighted a what was thought to be German U-Boat at a range of 1000 yards. Position was 37°24'N, 00°59'W. The U-Boat could not be attacked as the torpedo tubes were dry and there was not enough time to blow up the tubes. P 51 then dived to evade a possible attack by the enemy.

The submarine sighted was indeed a German U-Boat, U-561 (KL Heinz Schomburg). The Germans had also sighted P 51 and were also unable to attack. (2)

13 Dec 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) arrived at Malta from Gibraltar. (2)

21 Dec 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Malta for her 4th war patrol (3rd in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol off the Skerki Bank, north of Tunis, Tunisia on the traffic lane beteen Bizerta and Palermo.

For the daily and attack positions of HMS P 51 during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

24 Dec 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) attacked a large escorted transport vessel with four torpedoes to the north of the Gulf of Tunis in position 37°32'N, 10°45'E. No hits were obtained.

(All times are zone -1)
1028 hours - In position 37°32'N, 10°45'E sighted what is thought to be the German transport Ankara escorted by two, possibly three destroyers bearing 260°, range about 5 nautical miles. Started attack.

1033 hours - Fired four torpedoes from 2500 yards. No hits were obtained. One explosion was heard but this was thought not to be an exploding torpedo. No counter attack followed.

The transport attacked was not Ankara but most likely the Italian fast transport Mario Roselli (6835 GRT, built 1942) escorted by the Italian destroyers Bombardiere and Camicia Nera en-route from Bizerta to Palermo. The attack was not observed. (2)

28 Dec 1942
While still operating north of the Gulf of Tunis, HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), was detected and bombed by an enemy aircraft but she sustained no damage.

Later the same day and enemy convoy was attacked with three torpedoes but no hits were obtained. The target was most probably Caterina Costa (8060 GRT, built 1942) escorted by the destroyers Bersagliere and Mitragliere, they had sailed from Bizerta for Palermo. The attack was unobserved.

According to the Italian naval archives, (Ufficio Storico della Marina Militare) this attack was on the Col di Lana/Viminale convoy but this appears to be an error as they were farther north.

(All times are zone -1)
0402 hours - In position 37°30'N, 10°53'E sighted an aircraft approaching. Dived. The aircraft dropped three bombs that exploded moderately close but caused no damage to P 51.

---------------------------------------------------------

1727 hours - In position 37°34'N, 10°39'E sighted a 4000 tons transport ship escorted by two destroyers. Enemy course 070°, estimated speed 11 knots. Commenced attack on the zig-zagging enemy.

1740 hours - Fired three torpedoes from 2000 yards. No hits were obtained and no counter attack followed. (2)

29 Dec 1942
At 0054 hours (zone -1), HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), was detected and bombed by an enemy aircraft in position 37°22'N, 11°15'E. Six bombs were dropped, rather close but again P 51 was not damaged.

At 0235 hours, a small merchant ship with a destroyer were observed. Ten minutes later, in 37°14'N, 11°23'E, P 51 dived and observed them through the periscope but at 0257 hours they opened fire and the destroyer dropped three depth charges without causing any damage and hunted the submarine until 0500 hours before moving away. (2)

30 Dec 1942
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 4th war patrol (3rd in the Mediterranean) at Malta. (2)

8 Jan 1943
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Malta for her 5th war patrol (4th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol west of Tripoli, Libya and in the Gulf of Gabes.

For the daily and attack positions of HMS P 51 during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

17 Jan 1943
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) torpedoed and sank the Italian merchant Zenobia Martini (1454 GRT, built 1911) north of Gerba Island, Tunisia in position 33°55'N, 11°02'E.

Zenobia Martini escorted by the submarine chaser Oriole was en-route from Tripoli, Libya to Sfax, Tunisia. Oriole picked up forty-seven survivors (including thirteen British PoWs) and a corpse, three crew members and five passengers were killed or missing.

(All times are zone -1)
0700 hours - Sighted smoke bearing 160°.

0715 hours - The bearing of the smoke moved to the westward. Closed at speed.

0810 hours - Sighted a 2500 tons merchant vessel escorted by a Crotone-class escort vessel / minelayer. Commenced attack.

0906 hours - In position 33°55'N, 11°02'E fired three torpedoes. Two torpedo explosions were heard.

0908 hours - P 51 hit bottom with 45 feet on the depth gauge. Got off the bottom and withdrew to seaward. The escort dropped 6 depth charges but these were not close at all. (2)

18 Jan 1943
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) torpedoed and sank the Italian merchant Sportivo (1598 GRT, built 1900) 5 nautical miles bearing 20 of Zuara, Libya in position 33°00'N, 12°08'E.

Sportivo was en-route from Tripoli, Libya to Trapani, Sicily and was in convoy together with the Italian merchant Amba Alagi (450 GRT, built 1932) and were escorted by the Italian torpedo boat Calliope. She sank in two minutes and the escort vessel hunted the submarine, dropping all her thirty-six depth charges, while Amba Alagi proceeded unescorted. Calliope returned to pick up the survivors; none had been killed and only three were slightly wounded, and returned to Tripoli.

(All times are zone -1)
0930 hours - In position 32°56'N, 12°10'E sighted three ships bearing 110°, enemy course 285°. Started attack.

0945 hours - The ships were identified as a Calypso-class torpedo boat, a 2500 tons merchant vessel and a 400-500 tons motor tanker.

1014 hours - Fired three torpedoes from 1000 yards. One torpedo hit was heard. P 51 went to 60 feet. The torpedo boat started a counter attack. 35 Depth charges were counted but P 51 managed to escape undamaged.

1200 hours - Returned to periscope depth. Nothing in sight. (2)

19 Jan 1943
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) attacked an escorted merchant vessel with two torpedoes west of Tripoli, Libya. No hits were obtained.

(All times are zone -1)
1850 hours - In position 32°57'N, 12°31'E sighted two ships bearing 115°. Enemy course was 270°. Started attack. The leading ship was identified as a Crotone-class patrol vessel / minelayer and the second vessel was a small funnel-aft type merchant vessel of about 800 - 1000 tons.

1939 hours - Fired two torpedoes from 1500 yards. No hits were obtained. The enemy's speed was most likely badly underestimated. (2)

21 Jan 1943
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 5th war patrol (4th in the Mediterranean) at Malta. (2)

31 Jan 1943
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Malta for her 6th war patrol (5th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol the southern approaches to the Straits of Messina and later off the east Calabrian coast.

Upon departing Malta A/S exercises were carried out with HMS Speedy (Lt. J.G. Brookes, DSC, RN) and HMS Hythe (Lt.Cdr. L.B. Miller, RN). Also two practice attacks were made on HMS Speedy.

For the daily and attack positions of HMS P 51 during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

4 Feb 1943
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) torpedoed and sank the Italian merchant Le Tre Marie (1086 GRT, built 1925) about 6 nautical miles south of Punta Alice, Italy in position 39°16'N, 17°11'E. She had been on passage from Crotone to Taranto towed by the tug Costante and was hit in the stern. She sank in a few minutes and the tug rescued the whole crew, only one was slightly wounded.

(All times are zone -1)
1557 hours - In position 39°16'N, 17°11'E sighted a 1500 tons merchant vessel being towed by a tug bearing 170°, speed 5 nautical miles. Started attack from inshore.

1633 hours - Fired two torpedoes from 1500 yards. One hit the target which appeared to sink in 5 minutes. The tug slipped its tow and was later seen towing a lifeboat towards the shore.

1645 hours - Withdrew to seaward and reloaded. (2)

11 Feb 1943
HMS P 51 (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 6th war patrol (5th in the Mediterranean) at Malta. (2)

21 Feb 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Malta for her 7th war patrol (6th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol in the Gulf of Hammamet.

For the daily and attack positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

22 Feb 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) developed serious leaks and set course to return to Malta for repairs. (2)

23 Feb 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) arrived at Malta for repairs. (2)

27 Feb 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Malta to resume her 7th war patrol (6th in the Mediterranean). She was now ordered to patrol off Sousse, Tunisia. (2)

4 Mar 1943
While patrolling off Soussa, Tunisia HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) destroyed the wreck of the German merchant Macedonia (2875 GRT, built 1922).

Macedonia had been torpedoed and damaged by HMS P 35 on 13 December 1942. Macedonia had then been beached by her crew to prevent her from sinking. An air attack on 15 December 1942 had damaged her even further. Her cargo was being salvaged when Unseen attacked. A salvage crane was alongside when Unseen destroyed the wreck. There were no casualties.

(All times are zone -1)
1215 hours - Sighted a floating crane alongside a wreck apparently salving cargo. Started closing to attack.

1435 hours - In position 35°52'N, 10°39'E fired one torpedo which hit the wreck. Unfortunately the crane did not appear to have been damaged. She immediately cast off and returned to the harbour. (2)

6 Mar 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) fired a torpedo at a merchant vessel inside Sousse Harbour but the torpedo hit the breakwater instead. The south mole suffered some damage near a 75mm German battery. The patrol boats VAS 203 and VAS 206 sailed to hunt the submarine.

(All times are zone -1)
1046 hours - In position 35°51'N, 10°44'E sighted a ship bearing 040°, range about 5 nautical miles. Enemy course 270°, speed 8 to 9 knots. Started attack. The target turned out to be a trawler proceeding towards the harbour. Decided to fire a torpedo at the merchant vessel inside the harbour as the boom would be open to let this trawler enter the harbour.

1152 hours - In position 35°49'5"N, 10°42'E fired one torpedo at the centre of the entrance. Range was 5000 yards.

1155 hours - The torpedo exploded on the end of the breakwater just to starboard of the entrance. (2)

12 Mar 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 7th war patrol (6th in the Mediterranean) at Malta. (2)

22 Mar 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Malta for her 8th war patrol (7th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol to the North of Sicily.

For the daily and attack positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

24 Mar 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) fired four torpedoes against the Italian merchant Saluzzo (3747 GRT, former French Tamara, built 1937) that was in a convoy about 30 nautical miles west-south-west of Isola Marettimo, Italy in position 37°52'N, 11°27'E. A torpedo explosion was heard at the correct interval but in fact no hits were obtained.

The convoy attacked was made up of the above mentioned Saluzzo as well as the Italian merchant Nicolo Tommaseo (4573 GRT, built 1943). They were escorted by the Italian torpedo boats Libra, Perseo and Tifone.

(All times are zone -1)
0925 hours - In position 37°52'N, 11°27'E sighted a convoy of two merchant vessel escorted by two destroyers and aircraft. Started attack. The merchant vessels were of about 4000 and 3500 tons. Enemy course was about 050°, speed 12 - 12.5 knots.

1011 hours - Fired four torpedoes at the 3500 tons merchant vessel from 5000 yards.

1015 hours - Heard one explosion at about the correct interval. One of the destroyers then counter attacked but only four depth charges were dropped of which only two were close but these caused no damage.

1115 hours - Returned to periscope depth. Nothing in sight. (2)

3 Apr 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 8th war patrol (7th in the Mediterranean) at Malta. (2)

14 Apr 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Malta for her 9th war patrol (8th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol north of Sicily.

For the daily and attack positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

16 Apr 1943
At 0245 hours (zone -2), in position 37°32'N, 11°49'E, HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), was bombed by what was thought to be a Wellington aircraft. The bomb was dropped about 2 cables on the port beam but fortunately caused no damage. (2)

18 Apr 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) torpedoed and sank the German auxiliary submarine chaser UJ-2205 (1168 GRT, former French Le Jacques Coeur, built 1933) north-north-west of Isola di Femmine, Sicily, Italy in position 38°15'N, 13°13'E.

The convoy attacked by Unseen was made up of the Italian tanker Bivona (1646 GRT, former French Socombel, built 1943) escorted by the German auxiliary submarine chasers UJ 2203, UJ 2208 and the above mentioned UJ 2205 as well as the Italian patrol boats VAS 207 and VAS 230. UJ 2205 was hit in the engine room and sank at 1145 hours. Four had been killed and eleven seriously wounded, the Italian VAS boats came alongside to rescue the survivors while UJ 2203 hunted the submarine. Bivona was forced to return to Palermo and sailed again the next day only to be sunk by HMS Unrivalled.

(All times are zone -2)
1038 hours - In position 38°16'N, 13°11'E sighted three ships in line abreast escorted by two E-boats and two or more flying boats. Started attack.

1103 hours - Fired four torpedoes at a small tanker from a range of 800 yards. One hit was obtained and HE ceased immediately.

1110 to 1400 hours - The two E-boats started a counter attack. Depth charges were dropped singly. By 1200 hours 11 depth charges had been dropped. By 1400 hours a further 20 charges had been dropped. (2)

26 Apr 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 9th war patrol (8th in the Mediterranean) at Malta. (2)

27 May 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Malta for her 10th war patrol (9th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to perform several special operations (beach reconnaissances).

The time at Malta between this and her previous patrol had been used for trials with Chariot 'human torpedoes'.

For the daily positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

29 May 1943
During the night of 29-30 May 1943, HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), launched a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance. Position in which the folbot was launched was 36°44'N, 14°34'E. They used a folbot as there was too high a swell to use a Chariot. The party left at 2200/29 and returned at 0200/30. Course was then set to return to Malta (all times zone -2). (2)

30 May 1943
At 1100 hours (zone -2) HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) returned to Malta. She departed again at 1800 hours. (2)

31 May 1943
During the night of 31 May - 1 June 1943, HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), launched a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance. Position in which the folbot and Chariot (the first time this was used in this capacity) were launched was 36°44'N, 14°34'E. The party left at 2218/31 and returned at 0230/01. Course was then set to return to Malta (all times zone -2). (2)

1 Jun 1943
At 1800 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), returned to Malta. (2)

2 Jun 1943
In the evening, HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), after having embarked a new Chariot, departed Malta again for another beach reconnaissance. (2)

4 Jun 1943
At 1745 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), returned to Malta. She had been unable to launch the COPP party for another beach reconnaissance due to the bad weather. (2)

5 Jun 1943
At 1900 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), departed Malta again for another beach reconnaissance. (2)

6 Jun 1943
During the night of 6 - 7 June 1943, HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), launched a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance. Position in which the folbot and Chariot were launched was 36°44'N, 14°34'E. The party left at 2222/06 and returned at 0155/07. Course was then set to return to Malta (all times zone -2). (2)

7 Jun 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 10th war patrol (9th in the Mediterranean) at Malta. A total of four beach reconnaissances had been undertaken, however one unfortunately could not take place due to bad weather. (2)

24 Jun 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) departed Malta for her 11th war patrol (10th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to perform several special operations (beach reconnaissances, COPP VI) near Licata, Sicily. She had on board a party from COPP VI.

For the daily positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

25 Jun 1943
At 2210 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), surfaced to launch a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance. Unfortunately the mission had to be cancelled due to the poor visibility. (2)

26 Jun 1943
At 2200 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), surfaced to launch a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance. The folbot with the party left at 2215/26 and returned at 0200/27. According to the leader of the party a second sortie was required on this beach. (2)

27 Jun 1943
At 2200 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), surfaced to launch a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance. The folbot with the party left shortly after 2200/27 and returned at 0150/28. (2)

28 Jun 1943
At 2200 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), surfaced to launch a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance. The folbot with the party left shortly after 2200/28 and returned at 0200/29. (2)

30 Jun 1943
At 2155 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN), surfaced to launch a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance. The folbot with the party left shortly after 2155/30 and returned at 0105/01. It had been intended to do this beach reconnaissance the previous night but visibility had been too low. (2)

1 Jul 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 11th war patrol (10th in the Mediterranean) at Malta. (2)

6 Jul 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Malta for her 12th war patrol (11th in the Mediterranean). She was to launch two folbots to act as marking positions near Marzanimi for the Husky landings (invasion of Sicily).

No daily positions of HMS Unseen are known for this patrol so no map can be displayed.

9 Jul 1943
At 2155 hours, the submarine launched the two folbots but one sank accidentally and the other managed to take off with some difficulty.

At 2300 hours, HMS Unseen began to act as a beacon for the invading forces.

10 Jul 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC, RN) ended her 12th war patrol (11th in the Mediterranean) at Malta.

24 Jul 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Malta for her 13th war patrol (12th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to perform several special operations (beach reconnaissances) on the east Calabrian coast. She had on board a party from COPP VI.

For the daily and attack positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

30 Jul 1943
At 2200 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN), surfaced to launch a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance near Cape Colonna, Crotone, Italy. The folbot with the party left shortly after 2200/30 and returned at 0030/31.

1 Aug 1943
At 2140 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN), surfaced to launch a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance near Cape Colonna, Crotone, Italy. The folbot with the party left at 2200/01 and returned at 0055/02. (2)

3 Aug 1943
At 2140 hours (zone -2), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN), surfaced to launch a COPP party for a beach reconnaissance near Cape Rizzuto, Crotone, Italy. The folbot with the party left around 2200/03 and returned at 0040/04. (2)

4 Aug 1943
While on patrol off Cape Rizzuto, Calabria, Italy, HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) fires four torpedoes against what is thought to be an Italian Regolo class light cruiser. No hits were obtained.

The force attacked was made up of the Italian light cruisers Luigi Cadorna and Scipione Africano and the torpedo boats Lince and Saggitario and were on a mission to lay mines off Cape Rizzuto. Cadorna reported being missed by one torpedo on the port side.

(All times are zone -2)
0542 hours - In position 38°45'N, 17°10'E sighted three ships bearing 012°. They were difficult to see against the land. Started attack.

0547 hours - Identified the ships as one cruiser with a torpedo boat ahead and either a small cruiser or large destroyer astern.

0557 hours - In position 38°50'N, 17°09'E fired four torpedoes from yards. No hits were obtained. (2)

7 Aug 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) ended her 13th war patrol (12th in the Mediterranean) at Malta. (2)

20 Aug 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Malta for her 14th war patrol (13th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol off Bari in the Southern Adriatic.

For the daily and attack positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

24 Aug 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) attacked an escorted merchant vessel east of Bari, Italy with three torpedoes. No hits were obtained. Unseen was depth charged following this attack.

This was Hermada (4421 GRT, built 1907) escorted by the torpedo boat Enrico Cosenz and proceeding from Corfu to Bari. Hermada reported missed by four (sic) torpedoes astern and the torpedo boat carried a counter attack.

(All times are zone -2)
1651 hours - Sighted a 2000 tons merchant vessel, escorted by one 'Cosenz'-class torpedo boat weaving to seaward, bearing 145°, 5 nautical miles. Started attack.

1724 hours - In position 41°07'N, 16°57'E fired three torpedoes from 1500 yards. The torpedo boat was coming straight at Unseen from astern.

1725 hours - A torpedo explosion was heard.

1726 hours - A torpedo was heard to explode on hitting the beach.

1730 hours - Depth charging started. A total of 23 were dropped, the first 6 were very close but no damage was sustained.

1830 hours - Returned to periscope depth. The torpedo boat was seen to be hunting to the westward. The target was seen to enter Bari. (2)

27 Aug 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) torpedoed and sank the Italian merchant Rastello (985 GRT, former Greek Messarya Nomikos, built 1895) 48 nautical miles in position 41°30'N, 17°27'E. The target was proceeding unescorted from Durazzo to Bari and four crew members were killed.

(All times are zone -2)
0740 hours - Sighted masts of a merchant vessel bearing 129°, 8 nautical miles. Started attack.

0852 hours - In position 41°30'N, 17°27'E fired 4 torpedoes. One hit was obtained.

0859 hours - Heard two explosions thought to be depth charges.

0930 hours - Returned to periscope depth. Nothing in sight except wreckage and survivors on a raft.

1045 hours - Surfaced and went alongside the raft with 12 survivors on it. Two destroyers / torpedo boats were seen to be escorting but after the sinking the made off to Bari. Passed over food and morphine tablets for the three badly wounded and took on board four survivors. One was a Yugo-Slav which was very keen to come.

1115 hours - Withdrew to the north-east.

1130 hours - Dived. (2)

28 Aug 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) sank the Italian auxiliary patrol vessel (sailing vessel) V 216 / Fabiola (103 GRT) with gunfire and scuttling charges 3 nautical miles bearing 250° of Saseno Island, Albania. The corvette Pomona was sent to hunt the submarine but failed to locate it.

(All times are zone -2)
0620 hours - In position 40°30'N, 19°05'E sighted masts of a schooner bearing 110°, range 5 nautical miles. Closed to investigate.

0715 hours - Surfaced on the port quarter of the target. Opened up with the Vickers gun and manned the 3" gun. The 3" failed to fire. The crew of the schooner nontheless abandoned ship, some jumping over the side while others lowered a boat.

Went alongside and sent over the boarding party. They found the Captain and Boatswain still on board. They had been deserted by their crew and were taken prisoner. After collecting any books and documents placed demolition charges.

0750 hours - Shore batteries opened fire.

0755 hours - Withdrew to seaward and shortly afterwards dived. (2)

1 Sep 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) ended her 14th war patrol (13th in the Mediterranean) at Malta. (2)

15 Sep 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Malta for her 15th war patrol (14th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol off the west coast of Italy between 43.00'N and 43.25'N and off Capraia Island.

She made the passage through the Tunisian War Channel together with HMS Uproar (Lt. L.E. Herrick, DSC, RN), HMS Ultor (Lt. G.E. Hunt, DSC, RN) and ORP Dzik (Lt.Cdr. B. Romanowski). They were escorted by HMS BYMS 2028 (Skr. J.R. Clark, RNR).

For the daily and attack positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

21 Sep 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) torpedoed and sank the German minelayer Brandenburg (3895 GRT, former French Kita, built 1937) and the German night fighter direction vessel Kreta (2600 GRT, former French Ile de Beaute, built 1930) about 7 nautical miles north-east of Isola di Capraia, Italy in position 43°08'N, 09°58'E. They were escorted by the minesweepers R 189 and R 201 and two Arado seaplanes. Both vessels were each hit by a torpedo. Brandenburg sank at 1647 and Kreta at 1740 hours. Twenty-five were reported missing and thirty wounded (seven seriously) from Brandenburg and five were killed or missing and eleven wounded (four seriously) from Kreta. A total of 486 survivors were picked up by the minesweepers and brought to Leghorn.

(All times are zone -2)
1603 hours - In position 43°08'N, 09°58'E sighted two merchant vessels bearing 058°, range 5 nautical miles. Started attack. Two E-boats were seen as escort and two aircraft were patrolling overhead.

1623 hours - Fired four torpedoes from 3500 yards at the overlapping targets. Went deep on firing.

1626 hours - Heard two hits. Only HE from the E-boats was heard from now on.

1630 hours - The first of two depth charges was dropped. The second depth charge was very close.

1650 hours - Heard dull rumbling noises thought to be a ship breaking up.

1820 hours - Returned to periscope depth. Saw an aircraft and an E-boat patrolling the area. Started reloading the tubes. (2)

28 Sep 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) attacked an escorted merchant vessel north-west of Capraia Island in position 43°06'N, 09°43'E. No hits were obtained. This was most probably the German San Pedro (5947 GRT, built 1931, former French) escorted by the minesweepers R 162 and R 198 on passage from Bastia to Leghorn. The attack was unobserved.

(All times are zone -2)
0112 hours - In position 43°06'N, 09°43'E sighted a darkened ship bearing 180°. Enemy course was 050°. Closed to attack. Two E-boats were seen to be ahead of this ship.

0120 hours - Fired four torpedoes at the target thought to be a 3000 tons merchant vessel. The submarine was yawing heavily and firing intervals were very erratic. No hits were obtained. (2)

1 Oct 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) ended her 15th war patrol (14th in the Mediterranean) at Algiers where she joined the 8th submarine flotilla based there. (2)

12 Oct 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Algiers for her 16th war patrol (15th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol in the Gulf of Genoa and the south coast of France.

For the daily and attack positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

14 Oct 1943
At 2222 hours (zone -1), in position 41°37'N, 06°42'E, HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN), sighted and started an attack on the German U-Boat U-616 (OL Siegfried Koitschka) returning to Toulon from a patrol off Salerno. Just before torpedoes were to be fired U-616 spotted Unseen and dived spoiling Lt. Crawford's attack. (2)

22 Oct 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) attacked a convoy of two German landing barges just east of Imperia, Liguria, Italy and torpedoed and sank F 541. Of a crew of nineteen, seven wounded (six seriously) were rescued by F 484 which towed the forward part of F 541 and beached her near Oneglia. During the second attack F 484 was damaged.

(All times are zone -1)
0955 hours - In position 43°54'N, 08°08'E sighted two F-lighters bearing 250°, range 3 nautical miles. Started attack.

1016 hours - Fired three torpedoes, individually aimed. Obtained two hits, the target broke in two, the after part immediately sinking. 1016 / 1046 hours - Tried to attack the other F-lighter that was picking up survivors but was keen enough to keep moving all the time.

1050 hours - The second F-lighter now proceeded inshore. Fired the 4th torpedo but it missed and hit the beach just besides the F-lighter damaging it. (2)

28 Oct 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) ended her 16th war patrol (15th in the Mediterranean) at Algiers. (2)

6 Nov 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Algiers for her 17th war patrol (16th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol off Toulon, France.

For the daily and attack positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

12 Nov 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) attacked an escorted tanker with four torpedoes south of Toulon, France in position 43°01'N, 06°00'E. A hit was claimed.

This was the German tanker Pallas (former French, 5260 GRT, built 1925) with the tug L’Obstiné escorted by UJ 6076, M 6021, M 6023, M 6027 and R 10 on passage from Monaco to Marseille. They were just being joined by the steamer Gabolde escorted by M 6020 and M 6004 from Toulon but these were not observed from the submarine. The four torpedo tracks were observed and were avoided. UJ 6076 dropped thirteen and R 10 six depth charges.

(All times are zone -1)
0647 hours - Could just make out a tanker against the land with four other ships. Their estimated course was 300°, making for Toulon. Started attack.

0701 hours - In position 43°01'N, 06°00'E fired four torpedoes at the tanker, estimated as being 5000 - 6000 tons. The other four ships had by now been identified as UJ-boats.

0707 hours - Heard one torpedo explode thought to be a hit.

0711 hours - The first pattern of five depth charges was dropped, followed shortly after by two more patterns and then four or five single charges. Two of the escort vessels were heard to be hunting until 0830 hours.

16 Nov 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) is detected and depth charges by a German UJ-boat south of Toulon, France. These were probably UJ 6076 and M 6025 which were hunting a submarine at this time and in this area.

(All times are zone -1)
0710 hours - In position 43°01'N, 06°00'E sighted a submarine chaser in the entrance to Toulon and an UJ-boat bearing 050°, range 4 nautical miles, enemy course 130°. Looked like a U-Boat might be coming in.

0817 hours - The UJ-boat obtained a firm contact on Unseen which was at 60 feet.

0819 hours - A pattern of five depth charges was dropped very close.

0821 hours - Another pattern of five depth charges was dropped. Again very close and causing some minor damage. During the next two hours one depth charge was dropped.

1100 hours - Returned to periscope depth. Nothing in sight.

19 Nov 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) attacked an escorted merchant vessel with four torpedoes west-south-west of Toulon, France in position 43°03'N, 05°43'E. No hits were obtained.

The target may have been Port de Bouc (1743 GRT, built 1916) which was in convoy with Linois (7473 GRT, built 1907) escorted by SG 11 and UJ 2210 on passage from Genoa to Marseille where they arrived later in the afternoon. The attack was apparently unobserved.

(All times are zone -1)
1150 hours - In position 43°03'N, 05°43'E sighted masts and funnel of a ship bearing 080°, range 4 nautical miles.

1200 hours - Identified the target as a 2500 - 3000 tons merchant vessel escorted by a trawler and an UJ-boat. Started attack but visibility was bad.

1256 hours - Fired four torpedoes from 1800 yards. No hits were obtained and no counter attack followed.

23 Nov 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) arrived at Bizerta. She was escorted in by HMS Kintyre (T/Lt. C. Richardson, RNVR). (2)

24 Nov 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Bizerta for Malta. She was escorted during the passage by ML 566 (T/Lt. D.G.E. Brid, RNZNVR). (2)

25 Nov 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) ended her 16th war patrol (15th in the Mediterranean) at Malta. (2)

12 Dec 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Malta for her 18th war patrol (17th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol off southern France. Passage though the Tunisian war channel was made in convoy GUS 24.

For the daily positions of HMS Unseen during this patrol see the map below.

(2)

21 Dec 1943
At 1650 hours (zone -1), HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN), broke surface. She immediately submerged again but was sighted by an enemy A/S vessel which started an attack. Five depth charges were dropped which caused much minor damage to HMS Unseen. (The patrol report does not give the position of this attack also the submarine chaser has not been identified). (2)

27 Dec 1943
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) ended her 18th war patrol (17th in the Mediterranean) at La Maddalena. (2)

4 Jan 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed La Maddalena for Gibraltar.

For the daily positions of HMS Unseen during this passage see the map below.

(2)

7 Jan 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) is ordered to proceed to Algiers. (2)

8 Jan 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) arrived at Algiers. (2)

9 Jan 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Algiers for passage to Gibraltar. She made the passage in convoy MKS 36 together with the French submarine Aréthuse. (2)

11 Jan 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) arrived at Gibraltar. (2)

18 Jan 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Gibraltar for Portsmouth. She was escorted until 1330/20 by ML 174 (T/Lt. R. Mayhew, RNVR) and ML 176 (T/A/Lt.Cdr. G.O. Sparks, RCNVR).

For the daily positions of HMS Unseen during this passage see the map below.

(2)

28 Jan 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) arrived at Falmouth. (2)

29 Jan 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Falmouth for Portland where she arrived later the same day. She was escorted by HMS Grimsby Town (T/A/Skr.Lt. W.A. Cormack, RNR). (2)

30 Jan 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Portland for Portsmouth where she arrived later the same day. She was escorted by HMS Dochet (T/Lt. G.C. Wood, RNVR). (2)

16 Feb 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Portsmouth for Sheerness. She made the passage in a convoy. (6)

17 Feb 1944
HMS Unseen (Lt. M.L.C. Crawford, DSC and Bar, RN) arrived at the Sheerness Dockyard where she was to refit. (6)

28 May 1944
With her refit completed, HMS Unseen (T/Lt. T.D. Wood, DSC, RNVR) departed Sheerness for Rosyth was she was to join the 7th Submarine Flotilla for training purposes. She was escorted by HMS Velox until 0730/30, off Dundee, when HMS Loch Monteith took over the escort and also HrMs O 19 joined. The day before at 0840/29, off Blyth, HMS Vulpine had already joined Unseen and Velox. Both the other submarines were to proceed to Holy Loch for a work-up period. (6)

1 Jun 1944
HMS Unseen (T/Lt. T.D. Wood, DSC, RNVR) arrived at Rothesay. (6)

29 Jun 1944
HMS Unseen (T/Lt. T.D. Wood, DSC, RNVR) departed Rothesay together with HMS Unruffled (Lt. R.F. Park, RN) for St. John's, Newfoundland. They were escorted until 2340/30 by HMS Milford (Lt.Cdr. G.G. Slade, RN).

For the daily positions of HMS Unseen during this passage see the map below.

(6)

9 Jul 1944
HMS Unseen (T/Lt. T.D. Wood, DSC, RNVR) and HMS Unruffled (Lt. R.F. Park, RN) arrived at St. John's, Newfoundland. They were escorted in by HMCS Eyebright (T/Lt. H.L. Quinn, RCNVR).

11 Jul 1944
HMS Unseen (T/Lt. T.D. Wood, DSC, RNVR) departed St. John's, Canada together with HMS Unruffled (Lt. R.F. Park, RN) for Halifax, Canada.

14 Jul 1944
HMS Unseen (T/Lt. T.D. Wood, DSC, RNVR) and HMS Unruffled (Lt. R.F. Park, RN) arrived at Halifax, Canada.

Unseen was now assigned to A/S training with the Royal Canadian Navy. She operated mainly out of Halifax, St. John's and Digby.

At the end of the war (with Japan) HMS Unseen was at Digby, Canada. She returned to the U.K. in October 1945 and was reduced to reserve on 1 November 1945. (7)

Sources

  1. ADM 199/424
  2. ADM 199/1824
  3. ADM 173/17423
  4. ADM 173/17424
  5. ADM 173/17425
  6. ADM 199/1385
  7. ADM 199/2573

ADM numbers indicate documents at the British National Archives at Kew, London.


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