Allied Warships

HMS La Malouine (K 46)

Corvette of the Flower class

NavyThe Royal Navy
TypeCorvette
ClassFlower 
PennantK 46 
Built bySmiths Dock Co., Ltd. (South Bank-on-Tees, U.K.) 
Ordered25 Jul 1939 
Laid down13 Nov 1939 
Launched21 Mar 1940 
Commissioned29 Jul 1940 
End service 
History

Laid down as La Malouine for the French Navy, but completed as HMS La Malouine for the Royal Navy after France was invaded by Germany.

HMS La Malouine is not listed as active unit in the July 1945 Navy List

Scrapped at Galleswick Bay on 22 May 1947.

 

Commands listed for HMS La Malouine (K 46)

Please note that we're still working on this section
and that we only list Commanding Officers for the duration of the Second World War.

CommanderFromTo
1Lt.Cdr. (retired) Ronald William Keymer, RN5 Aug 19403 Jul 1941
2T/Lt. Vivian Dickinson Hamlin Bidwell, RNR3 Jul 194110 May 1943
3Lt. William Arthur Ives, RNR10 May 194320 Sep 1944
4T/Lt. Christopher Pawley, RNVR20 Sep 1944mid 1945

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Notable events involving La Malouine include:


22 Aug 1940
HrMs O 24 (Lt.Cdr. O. de Booy, RNN) departed Portsmouth for Rothesay on the Scottish West coast. She is escorted by the British corvette HMS La Malouine (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) R.W. Keymer, RN). (1)

22 Sep 1940
HMS La Malouine (Lt.Cdr. R.W. Keymer, RN) picks up 62 survivors from the British merchant Canonesa that was torpedoed and sunk the previous day by German U-boat U-100 about 340 nautical miles west of Bloody Foreland in position 54°55'N, 18°25'W.

HMS La Malouine also picks up 48 survivors from the British merchant Dalcairn that was also sunk by U-100 but in position 55°00'N, 19°00'W.

HMS La Malouine also picks up 32 survivors from the British tanker Frederick S. Fales that was also sunk by U-100 but in position 55°30'N, 13°40'W.

23 Sep 1940
HMS La Malouine (Lt.Cdr. R.W. Keymer, RN) picks up 4 survivors from the British merchant Empire Airman that was torpedoed and damaged the previous day by German U-boat U-100 about 340 nautical miles west of Bloody Foreland in position 54°00'N, 18°00'W. The Empire Airman sank while under tow in position 55°11'N, 15°07'W.

8 Dec 1940
HMS H 32 (Lt. R.L. Alexander, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMS La Malouine (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) R.W. Keymer, RN) and HMS St. Zeno (T/Lt. J.K. Craig, RNVR). (2)

18 Dec 1940
HMS H 32 (Lt. R.L. Alexander, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMS Broke (Cdr. B.G. Scurfield, RN) and HMS La Malouine (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) R.W. Keymer, RN). (2)

24 Feb 1941
HMS H 32 (Lt. B.G. Heslop, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle together with HMS La Malouine (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) R.W. Keymer, RN). (3)

4 Mar 1941
HrMs O 21 (Lt.Cdr. J.F. van Dulm) does not sight her escort at the rendez vouz. The British corvette HMS La Malouine (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) R.W. Keymer, RN) was supposed to meet her and escort her to convoy OG 54. O 21 now proceeded along the expected path of the convoy independently. (4)

25 Mar 1941

Convoy HG 57.

This convoy departed Gibraltar on 25 March 1941 and arrived in U.K. waters on 11 April 1941.

It was made up of the following merchant vessels; Aghios Spyridon (Greek, 3338 GRT, built 1905), Aldergrove (British, 1974 GRT, built 1918), Anneberg (Finnish, 2537 GRT, built 1902), Ardeola (British, 2609 GRT, built 1912), Baltallinn (British, 1303 GRT, built 1920), Baron Newlands (British, 3386 GRT, built 1928), Bollsta (Norwegian, 1832 GRT, built 1934), Caledonia (British, 1268 GRT, built 1913), Cantal (British, 3178 GRT, built 1916), Cervantes (British, 1810 GRT, built 1916), Chantilly (British, 9986 GRT, built 1923), Egyptian (British, 2868 GRT, built 1920), Empire Strait (British, 2841 GRT, built 1940), Gothland (British, 1286 GRT, built 1932), Marvia (British, 1989 GRT, built 1914), Mimosa (Greek, 3071 GRT, built 1905), Moscha D. Kydoniefs (British, 3874 GRT, built 1915), Newton Pine (British, 4212 GRT, built 1925), Octane (British, 2034 GRT, built 1939), Polo (British, 1950 GRT, built 1919), Runa (British, 1575 GRT, built 1930), Scania (Swedish, 1980 GRT, built 1901), Scottish Monarch (British, 4719 GRT, built 1938) and Trio (Swedish, 1482 GRT, built 1922).

The rescue ship Zamalek (British, 1567 GRT, built 1921).

On departure from Gibraltar the convoy was escorted by the destroyer HMS Wrestler (Lt. E.L. Jones, DSC, RN), sloop HMS Rochester (Lt.Cdr. C.B. Allen, RN), corvettes HMS La Malouine (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) R.W. Keymer, RN), HMS Verbena (Lt.Cdr. D.A. Rayner, DSC, RNVR)and the submarine HrMs O 23 (Lt.Cdr. G.B.M. van Erkel, RNN).

The Aghios Spyridon returned to Gibraltar the same day the convoy had sailed.

On 27 March, HMS Wrestler was detached.

On 3 April, HrMs O 23 was detached and the light cruiser HMS Nigeria (Capt. J.G.L. Dundas, RN joined.

At 0920Z/4, HMS La Malouine was detached.

At 0845Z/5, the armed boarding vessel Hilary (Cdr. T.L. Owen, RD, RNR) joined the convoy.

At 1930Z/5, the armed boaring vessel Cavina (Cdr. C.B. Osborne, RD, RNR) joined the convoy.

On 8 April the destroyers HMS Broke (Cdr. B.G. Scurfield, RN), HMS Douglas (Cdr. W.E. Banks, DSC, RN), HMS Roxborough (Lt. V.A. Wight-Boycott, OBE, RN), HMS Salisbury (Lt.Cdr. H.M.R. Crichton, RN), corvettes HMS Abelia (T/Lt. F. Ardern, RNR), HMS Clarkia (Lt.Cdr. F.J.G. Jones, RNR) and auxiliary A/S trawlers HMS St. Elstan (T/Lt. G. Butcher, RNVR), HMS St. Kenan (T/Lt. R.R. Simpson, RNR), HMS St. Zeno (T/Lt. J.K. Craig, RNVR) and HMS Vizalma (T/Lt. M.M. Firth, RNVR).

HMS Nigeria parted company with the convoy around 1900A/9.

The convoy arrived in U.K. waters on 11 April 1941.

5 Aug 1941
HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR) picks up 59 survivors from the British merchant Kumasian that was torpedoed and sunk by German U-boat U-74 west of Ireland in position 53°26'N, 15°40'W.

27 Jun 1942

Convoy operations PQ 17 / QP 13

Convoys to and from Northern Russia

On 27 June 1942 Convoy PQ 17 departed Reykjavik Iceland bound for northern Russia. This convoy was made up of the following merchant ships;

American
Alcoa Ranger (5116 GRT, built 1919), Bellingham (5345 GRT, built 1920), Benjamin Harrison (7191 GRT, built 1942), Carlton (5127 GRT, built 1920), Christopher Newport (7191 GRT, built 1942), Daniel Morgan (7177 GRT, built 1942), Exford (4969 GRT, built 1919), Fairfield City (5686 GRT, built 1920), Honomu (6977 GRT, built 1919), Hoosier (5060 GRT, built 1920), Ironclad (5685 GRT, built 1919), John Witherspoon (7191 GRT, built 1942), Olopana (6069 GRT, built 1920), Pan Atlantic (5411 GRT, built 1919), Pan Kraft (5644 GRT, built 1919), Peter Kerr (6476 GRT, built 1920), Richard Bland (7191 GRT, built 1942), Washington (5564 GRT, built 1919), West Gotomska (5728 GRT, built 1919), William Hooper (7177 GRT, built 1942), Winston-Salem (6223 GRT, built 1920),

British
Bolton Castle (5203 GRT, built 1939), Earlston (7195 GRT, built 1941), Empire Byron (6645 GRT, built 1941), Empire Tide (6978 GRT, built 1941), Hartlebury (5082 GRT, built 1934), Navarino (4841 GRT, built 1937), Ocean Freedom (7173 GRT, built 1942), River Afton (5479 GRT, built 1935), Samuel Chase (7191 GRT, built 1942), Silver Sword (4937 GRT, built 1920),

Dutch
Paulus Potter (7168 GRT, built 1942),

Panamanian
El Capitan (5255 GRT, built 1917), Troubadour (6428 GRT, built 1920),

The Russian tankers Azerbaidjan (6114 GRT, built 1932), Donbass (7925 GRT, built 1935),

The British (Royal Fleet Auxiliary) tanker Grey Ranger (3313 GRT, built 1941).

Also with the convoy was a British rescue ship
Zaafaran (1559 GRT, built 1921).

The US merchants Exford and West Gotomska had to return both arrived back damaged at Reykjavik on 30 June. The first one due to ice damage and the second one due to damaged engines.

Escort was provided by the minesweepers HMS Britomart (Lt.Cdr. S.S. Stammwitz, RN), HMS Halcyon (Lt.Cdr. C.H. Corbet-Singleton, DSC, RN), HMS Salamander (Lt. W.R. Muttram, RN), A/S trawlers HMS Ayrshire (T/Lt. L.J.A. Gradwell, RNVR), HMS Lord Austin (T/Lt. O.B. Egjar, RNR), HMS Lord Middleton (T/Lt. R.H. Jameson, RNR) and HMS Northern Gem (Skr.Lt. W.J.V. Mullender, DSC, RD, RNR) and the submarine HMS P 615 (Lt. P.E. Newstead, RN).

The convoy was joined at sea by a close escort force made up of the following warships; destroyers HMS Keppel (Cdr. J.E. Broome, RN / in command of the close escort of the convoy) , HMS Offa (Lt.Cdr. R.A. Ewing, RN), HMS Fury (Lt.Cdr. C.H. Campbell, DSC and Bar, RN), HMS Leamington (Lt. B.M.D. L’Anson, RN), escort destroyers HMS Ledbury (Lt.Cdr. R.P. Hill, RN), HMS Wilton (Lt. A.P. Northey, DSC, RN), corvettes HMS Lotus (Lt. H.J. Hall, RNR), HMS Poppy (Lt. N.K. Boyd, RNR), HMS Dianella (T/Lt. J.G. Rankin, RNR), HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR), Auxiliary AA ships HMS Palomares (A/Capt.(rtd.) J.H. Jauncey, RN) and HMS Pozarica (A/Capt.(rtd.) E.D.W. Lawford, RN) and submarine HMS P 614 (Lt. D.J. Beckley, RN). Also two more British rescue ships sailed with this force to join the convoy at sea; Rathlin (1600 GRT, built 1936) and Zamalek (1567 GRT, built 1921).

The RFA tanker Grey Ranger, which was to fuel the escorts, was now sailing independent from the convoy, she was escorted by the destroyer HMS Douglas (Lt.Cdr. R.B.S. Tennant, RN). Another RFA tanker, the Aldersdale, had now joined the convoy. It had originally been intended that the Aldersdale would take the role the Grey Ranger was now performing but Grey Ranger had been damaged by ice to the north of Iceland so both tankers swapped roles.

Meanwhile on June 26th the Archangel section of the return convoy QP 13 had departed that port. This section was made up of 22 merchant ships;

American
American Press (5131 GRT, built 1920), American Robin (5172 GRT, built 1919), Hegira (7588 GRT, built 1919), Lancaster (7516 GRT, built 1918), Massmar (5828 GRT, built 1920), Mormacrey (5946 GRT, built 1919), Yaka (5432 GRT, built 1920),

British
Chulmleigh (5445 GRT, built 1938), Empire Mavis (5704 GRT, built 1919), Empire Meteor (7457 GRT, built 1940), Empire Stevenson (6209 GRT, built 1941), St. Clears (4312 GRT, built 1936),

Dutch
Pieter de Hoogh (7168 GRT, built 1941),

Panamanian
Capira (5625 GRT, built 1920), Mount Evans (5598 GRT, built 1919),

Russian
Alma Ata (3611 GRT, built 1920), Archangel (2480 GRT, built 1929), Budenni (2482 GRT, built 1923), Komiles (3962 GRT, built 1932), Kuzbass (3109 GRT, built 1914), Petrovski (3771 GRT, built 1921), Rodina (4441 GRT, built 1922), Stary Bolshevik (3794 GRT, built 1933)

They were escorted by the destroyers HMS Intrepid (Cdr. C.A. de W. Kitcat, RN), ORP Garland (Kmdr.por. (Cdr.) H. Eibel), the corvettes HMS Starwort (Lt.Cdr. N.W. Duck, RD, RNR), HMS Honeysuckle (Lt. H.H.D. MacKillican, DSC, RNR), the auxiliary AA ship HMS Alynbank (A/Capt.(rtd.) H.F. Nash, RN) and a local escort of four minesweepers; HMS Bramble (Capt. J.H.F. Crombie, DSO, RN), HMS Seagull (Lt.Cdr. C.H. Pollock, RN), HMS Leda (A/Cdr.(rtd.) A.H. Wynne-Edwards, RN) and HMS Hazard (Lt.Cdr. J.R.A. Seymour, RN).

the next day (27th) the Murmask section of convoy QP 13 also went to sea. This was made up of 12 merchant ships;

American
City of Omaha (6124 GRT, built 1920), Heffron (7611 GRT, built 1919), Hybert (6120 GRT, built 1920), John Randolph (7191 GRT, built 1941), Mauna Kea (6064 GRT, built 1919), Nemaha (6501 GRT, built 1920), Richard Henry Lee (7191 GRT, built 1941),

British
Atlantic (5414 GRT, built 1939), Empire Baffin (6978 GRT, built 1941), Empire Selwyn (7167 GRT, built 1941),

Panamanian
Exterminator (6115 GRT, built 1924), Michigan (6419 GRT, built 1920),

They were escorted by the destroyers HMS Inglefield (Cdr. A.G. West, RN), HMS Achates (Lt.Cdr. A.A. Tait, DSO, RN), HMS Volunteer (Lt. A.S. Pomeroy, RN), the minesweepers HMS Niger (Cdr.ret.) A.J. Cubison, DSC and Bar, RN), HMS Hussar (Lt. R.C. Biggs, DSC, RN), the corvettes HMS Hyderabad (Lt. S.C.B. Hickman, RN), FFS Roselys and the A/S trawlers Lady Madeleine (T/Lt. W.G.Ogden, RNVR) and St. Elstan (Lt. R.M. Roberts, RNR). Also three Russian destroyers (Grozniy, Gremyashchiy and Valerian Kyubishev) joined the escort of convoy QP 13 as far as 30 degrees East.

To cover these convoy operations a close cover force departed Seidisfjord, Iceland around midnight during the night of 30 June / 1 July to take up a position to the north of convoy PQ 17. This force was made up of the British heavy cruisers HMS London (Capt. R.M. Servaes, CBE, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral L.H.K. Hamilton, DSO and Bar, RN), HMS Norfolk (Capt. E.G.H. Bellars, RN), as well as the American heavy cruisers USS Tuscaloosa (Capt. L.P. Johnson, USN) and USS Wichita (Capt. H.W. Hill, USN). They were escorted by the British destroyer HMS Somali (Capt. J.W.M. Eaton, DSO, DSC, RN) and the American destroyers USS Rowan (Lt.Cdr. B.R. Harrison, Jr., USN) and USS Wainwright (Lt.Cdr. R.H. Gibbs, USN).

A distant cover force had meanwhile sailed from Scapa Flow late on the 29th to take up a cover position north-east of Jan Mayen Island. This force was made up of battleships HMS Duke of York (Capt. C.H.J. Harcourt, CBE, RN, with the Commander-in-Chief Home Fleet, Admiral Sir J. Tovey, KCB, KBE, DSO, RN on board), USS Washington (Capt. H.H.J. Benson, USN, with Rear-Admiral R.C. Griffen, USN on board), aircraft carrier HMS Victorious (Capt. H.C. Bovell, CBE, RN, with Vice-Admiral Sir B. Fraser, CB, KBE, RN, second in command Home Fleet on board), heavy cruiser HMS Cumberland (Capt. A.H. Maxwell-Hyslop, AM, RN), light cruiser HMS Nigeria (Capt. S.H. Paton, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral H.M. Burrough, CB, RN). They were escorted by the destroyers HMS Faulknor (Capt. A.K. Scott-Moncrieff, RN, Capt. 8th Destroyer Flotilla), HMS Escapade (Lt.Cdr. E.N.V. Currey, DSC, RN), HMS Martin (Cdr. C.R.P. Thomson, RN), HMS Marne (Lt.Cdr. H.N.A. Richardson, DSC, RN), HMS Onslaught (Cdr. W.H. Selby, RN), HMS Middleton (Lt.Cdr. D.C. Kinloch, RN), HMS Blankney (Lt.Cdr. P.F. Powlett, RN) and HMS Wheatland (Lt.Cdr. R.de.L Brooke, RN). The destroyers HMS Onslow (Capt. H.T. Armstong, DSC and Bar, RN, Capt. 17th Destroyer Flotilla), HMS Ashanti (Cdr. R.G. Onslow, RN), USS Mayrant (Cdr. C.C. Hartman, USN) and USS Rhind (Lt.Cdr. H.T. Read, USN) meanwhile arrived at Seidisfiord, Iceland from Scapa Flow to fuel before joining the Battlefleet at sea later.

Earlier on the 29th Force X, which was to act as a decoy convoy to fool the Germans (Operation ES), had departed Scapa Flow. This force was made up of; the auxiliary minelayers HMS Southern Prince (A/Capt. J. Cresswell, RN), HMS Agamemnon (Capt.(rtd.) F. Ratsey, RN) , HMS Port Quebec (A/Capt.(rtd.) V. Hammersley-Heenan, RN) , HMS Menestheus (Capt.(rtd.) R.H.F. de Salis, DSC and Bar, OBE, RN) and four merchant vessels (colliers ?). They were escorted by the light cruisers HMS Sirius (Capt. P.W.B. Brooking, RN), HMS Curacoa (Capt. J.W. Boutwood, RN), minelayer HMS Adventure (Capt. N.V. Grace, RN), destroyers HMS Brighton (Cdr.(rtd). C.W.V.T.S. Lepper, RN), HMS St. Marys (Lt.Cdr. K.H.J.L. Phibbs, RN), HMAS Nepal (Cdr. F.B. Morris, RAN), HrMs Tjerk Hiddes (Lt.Cdr. W.J. Kruys. RNethN), the escort destroyers Oakley (Lt.Cdr. T.A. Pack-Beresford, RN), Catterick (Lt. A. Tyson, RN), and 4 A/S trawlers.

On 1 July 'Force X' was divided into two parts. One part was made up of the four auxiliary minelayers, HMS Sirius, HMS Adventure, HMS Brighton, HMS St. Marys, HMAS Nepal and HrMs Tjerk Hiddes. The other part was made up of the remaining ships of 'Force X'.

'Force X' sailed eastward twice, on 30 June and 2 July, to about position 61°30’N, 01°30’E but was not spotted by the Germans. On 2 July 1942, HMAS Nepal and HrMs Tjerk Hiddes were detached from 'Force X' to proceed to Portsmouth and Liverpool respectively. There they were to undergo post work up repairs before they would join the Eastern Fleet.

First contact with the enemy occurred on 1 July 1942 when escorts from convoy PQ 17 twice attacked German submarines that were spotted on the surface several miles from the convoy. These were U-456 that was depth charged by HMS Ledbury and sustained light damage and U-657 that was depth charged by HMS Ledbury and HMS Leamington, she sustained no damage. That evening convoy PQ 17 also suffered its first attack from the air. Nine torpedo aircraft approached the convoy at about 1800 hours in position 73°30’N, 04°00’E. Some dropped torpedoes but they exploded wide of the convoy. One aircraft was shot down, most likely by the destroyer USS Rowan which was en-route from the cruiser force to the convoy to fuel from the Aldersdale.

The next night the convoy ran into for which persisted until the forenoon of the 3rd. In the afternoon of 2 July, U-255 made a torpedo attack on one of the escorts, HMS Fury, two torpedoes were fire but both missed. Fury then counter attacked with depth charges but U-255 sustained no damage. At more or less the same time U-376 was also depth charged by two or three escorts, she was not damaged. Shortly afterwards U-334 was also depth charged but she also escaped without damage.

On the 3rd several U-Boats were in contact for short periods but three were driven off by the escorts in the afternoon. When the mist cleared shadowing aircraft soon regained contact on the convoy.

By the early morning of the 4th convoy PQ 17 was about 60 nautical miles north of Bear Island where it sustained its first loss. Just before 0500 hours the new American merchant vessel Christopher Newport was torpedoed by a single aircraft. Damage was serious and the ship was finished off by the British submarine HMS P 614 which was part of the convoys escort while the rescue ship Zamalek took off the crew. The ship however remained afloat and was finally finished off by U-457.

In the evening of the 4th German aircraft made a successful attack on the convoy hitting the British merchant vessel Navarino, the American merchant William Hooper and the Russian tanker Azerbaidjan. The Azerbaidjan was able to proceed at 9 knots and in the end reached port. The other two ships had to be sunk, most of their crews were picked up by the rescue vessels. William Hooper in fact remained afloat and was finally finished off by U-334.

The situation was now as follows. Convoy PQ 17 was now about 130 nautical miles north-east of Bear Island and had just come through the heavy air attack remarkably well. The convoy discipline and shooting had been admirable and a substantial toll had been taken on the enemy. Rear-Admiral Hamilton was still covering the convoy with his cruiser force some ten miles to the north-eastward, with orders by the Admiralty to do so until ordered otherwise. Some 350 miles to the westward the main cover force was cruising in the area south-west of Spitzbergen.

Now turning to the Germans. The approval of the Führer to sail the heavy ships to attack the convoy had still not been obtained. The Tirpitz and Admiral Hipper meanwhile had joined the Admiral Scheer at the Alternfjord but noting further could be done without the Führer’s approval.

Meanwhile at the Admiralty it was known that German heavy surface units had gone to sea from Trondheim (battleships Tirpitz and heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper) and Narvik (pocket battleships Lützow and Admiral Scheer) but they had not been detected at sea. Fearing an attack on the convoy by these ships was imminent the convoy was ordered to scatter at 2123/4. Shortly before that the close cover force had been ordered to withdraw to the west as it was obviously no match for the German heavy ships.

The Admiralty decision was conveyed to Rear-Admiral Hamilton in the following three signals;
Most immediate. Cruiser force withdraw to the west at high speed. (2111B/4)
Most immediate. Owning to threat of surface ships, convoy is to disperse and to proceed to Russian ports. (2123B/4)
Most immediate. My 2323B/4. Convoy is to scatter. (2136B/4)
To Rear-Admiral Hamilton these signals could only mean that further information the admiralty had been hoping for had indeed come in and was of such a nature as to render imperative the drastic measures now ordered. Actually the reason for use of high speed by the cruisers was due to the massing of enemy submarines between 11°E and 20°E and the order to scatter was intended merely as a technical amendment of the term disperse that was used in the previous signal. This could not be known by the recipients, and the cumulative effect of these three signals – especially as the last one had a more important marking as the middle one – was to imply that pressing danger was actually upon them. As Commander Broome put it he expected to see the cruisers open fire and the enemy’s mast appear on the horizon at any moment. In this belief he decided to take the destroyers of his escort group to reinforce the cruiser force, and ordered the two submarines to stay near the convoy when it scattered and to try to attack the enemy, while the rest of the escorting ships were to proceed independently to Archangel.

At 2215/4 Commander Broome passed the signal to scatter to Commodore Dowding. The convoy was then in position 75°55’N, 27°52’E. Commander Broome then departed with the destroyers of the close screen to join the cruiser force of Rear-Admiral Hamilton.

Rear-Admiral Hamilton received the Admiralty orders at 2200/4. HMS Norfolk had just flown off her aircraft on an ice patrol. He therefore stood to the eastward for half an hour while attemps were made to recall it but these were without success and at 2230 hours the force turned to a westerly course at 25 knots steering to pass to the southward of the convoy so as to be between it and the probable direction of the enemy. An hour later they passed the merchant vessels which were now on widely divergent courses.

Rear-Admiral Hamilton was much concerned at the effect of the apparent desertion of the merchant ships had on morale. Had he been aware that the Admiralty had no further information of the enemy heavy units then he himself possessed he would have remained in a covering position until the convoy was widely dispersed.

As time went on without further developments Rear-Admiral Hamilton became more and more puzzled as to what have led to the sudden scattering of the convoy. But whatever the reason, the orders for his own force were clear, so he remained his westerly course at 25 knots. Thick fog was encountered soon after midnight, which persisted with brief intervals till 0630/5. Commander Broome, equally mystified by the course of events, soon began to feel that his place was with the merchant ships but he thought Rear-Admiral Hamilton was acting on fuller information then himself. As soon as the fog lifted sufficiently for visual signalling he informed the Rear-Admiral of his last hurried instructions to PQ 17 and requested that they should be amplified or amended as nessesary.

Actually Rear-Admiral Hamilton, who was still under the impression that enemy surface forces were in close proximity, argued that once the convoy had been scattered the enemy would leave it to their air forces and submarines to deal with it (and this was exactly what the Germans did). He feared the enemy surface forces would be ordered to deal with his force and reinforced by Commander Broome’s destroyers he felt that he could fight a delaying action, and had a good chance of leading the enemy within reach of the aircraft of HMS Victorious and possibly the heavy ships of the force of the Commander-in-Chief.

At 0700/5, while in position 75°40’N, 16°00’E, Rear-Admiral Hamilton reduced to 20 knots and at 0930 hours set course for Jan Mayen Island. It was not until that forenoon that the situation as regards the enemy heavy ships was made clear to him. Meanwhile he had to decide what to do with Commander Broome’s destroyers. Accordingly he ordered them to fuel from HMS London and HMS Norfolk. By 1630 hours the fueling of HMS Ledbury, HMS Wilton, USS Rowan and HMS Keppel had been completed. At 1740 hours a German Focke Wulf aircraft made contact and correctly reported the force in position 74°30’N, 07°40’E. Having been located, Rear-Admiral Hamilton broke wireless silence and at 1830/5 informed the Commander-in-Chief of his position, course, speed and the composition of his force. This was the first time the Commander-in-Chief was informed of the fact the Commander Broome’s destroyers with with the force of Rear-Admiral Hamilton, a fact which he regretted.

The Commander-in-Chief, having spent 4 July cruising about 150 nautical miles north-west of Bear Island, had turned to the south-westward in the early morning of the 5th, and was then on his way back to Scapa Flow some 120 nautical miles south-west of the force of Rear-Admiral Hamilton. Shortly afterwards there came news at last of the German heavy ships. The Russian submarine K-21 reported at 1700/5 the Tirpitz, Admiral Scheer and eight destroyers in position 71°25’N, 23°40’E, steering course 045°. She claimed to have hit the Tirpitz with two torpedoes. An hour or so later, at 1816 hours, a reconnoitring aircraft reported eleven strange ships in position 71°31’N, 27°10’E steering 065°, speed 10 knots. And finally HMS P 54 (Lt. C.E. Oxborrow, DSC, RN), at 2029/5 reported the Tirpitz and Admiral Hipper escorted by at least six destroyers and eight aircraft in position 71°30’N, 28°40’E steering a course of 060° at a speed of 22 knots.

Actually the cruise of the German ships was of short duration. Hitler’s permission to lauch the operation had only been obtained in the forenoon of the 5th and the executive order was given at 1137 hours. Rear-Admiral Hamilton’s cruisers were then known to be moving to the westward and Admiral Tovey’s covering force was some 450 miles away from the convoy. It seemed there would be no immediate danger for the German heavy ships provided they could approach the merchant ships unseen and engage them for a time as short as possible. But the Allied sighting reports were intercepted and the Naval Staff calculated that Admiral Tovey would be able to close sufficiently to launch an air attack before they would be able to return to port I they continued operations against the merchant ships after 0100/6. Air and U-boat attacks were meanwhile taking a heavy toll on the convoy and it did not seem that it was worth the risk. At 2132/5 orders were given to abandon the operation. At 2152 hours, while in position 71°38’N, 31°05’E the German ships reversed course and returned to Altafjord.

During the night of 5/6 July the Admiralty made three signals to the Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet suggesting that the Tirpitz might be ‘reluctant to go as far as the convoy’ if the battlefleet was sighted steering to the eastward, and that aircraft from HMS Victorious might be able to attack her if she had ben damaged by the Russian submarines. The latter appeared to Admiral Tovey unlikely, for as it seemed certain that the Tirpitz, especially if damaged, would not be sailed down the Norwegian coast until adequate fighter cover and seaward reconnaissance were available. However, arrangements were made for the fleet to reverse its course if the approach of enemy aircraft was detected and at 0645/6 course was altered back to the north-eastward. An hour later an enemy aircraft passed over the fleet above the clouds but endeavours to attract its attention by gunfire and fighters were unsuccessful. That forenoon Rear-Admiral Hamilton’s force joined the fleet at 1040/6. Weather was unsuitable for air reconnaissance and Admiral Tovey felt that nothing was to be gained by continuing to the north-eastward. Rear-Admiral Hamilton’s cruisers and eight destroyers were detached to Seidisfjord at 1230 hours and the battlefleet turned to the southward again shortly afterwards. All ships reached harbour on the 8th.

The last news of the enemy ships came on 7 July, when a British aircraft working from Vaenga, near Murmansk, reported the Tirpitz, Admiral Scheer and Admiral Hipper and some destroyers followed by an oiler from a neighbouring fjord turning out of Lang Fjord in Arnoy (70°N, 20°30’E). By this time the Allied ships were well on their way home but an attempt to attack the enemy was once again made by submarines. Anticipating their return to Narvik, HMS Sturgeon (Lt. M.R.G. Wingfield, RN) and FFS Minerve (Lt. P.M. Sonneville) had been ordered on 6 July to leave the main patrol line and to patrol to the mouth of the Vest Fjord on the 7th and the 8th, one at a time, in case the Tirpitz should pass on the outside of the Lofoten Islands, owning to her heavy draught due to possible damage. Nothing came of this, however, nor of a further patrol carried out by HMS Sturgeon on the night of 9/10 July close inshore some 70 nautical miles north of Trondheim in case of any German ships going to that port.

Now back to the ships of convoy PQ 17. The sudden order to scatter came to Commodore Dowding as an unpleasant surprise. Like Rear-Admiral Hamilton and Commander Broome he did not doubt that it heralded the immediate appearance of enemy heavy ships, and as the escorting destroyers parted company to join the cruisers, he signalled to HMS Keppel ‘Many thanks, goodbye and good hunting’ to which Commander Broome replied ‘It’s a grim business leaving you here’. It was indeed a grim business and the gravity of the situation was clear to all. Weather attack by surface craft developed in a few minutes or by aircraft and submarines during the next few days, the plight of the individual merchant ships – deprived of mutual support of their escort - was parlous in the extreme.

The convoy scattered as laid down in the instructions, in perfect order, though it must have been apparent to the ships that had to turn to the south-west that they were heading towards where the most trouble might be expected. The merchant ships proceeded mostly alone, or in groups of two or three. The anti-aircraft ships HMS Palomares and HMS Pozarica each took charge of a group, each collecting also two or three minesweepers or corvettes to act as a screen. They joined company the next day and proceeded towards Novaya Zemlya. HMS Salamander accompanied two merchantmen and a rescue ship. HMS Daniella was escorting the submarines, HMS P 614 and HMS P 615. She stood them clear of the convoy, when they separated to patrol in its wake, while the corvette went on by itself. At first the different groups spread on courses ranging from north to east, a few steering afterwards for Archangel, most seeking shelter in Novaya Zemlya. But less than half the merchant ships reached even ‘horrid Zembla’s frozen realms’, for 17 in addition to the oiler Aldersdale and the rescue ship Zaafaran were sunk during the next three days by bombing aircraft and U-boats. The bulk of the losses took place on the 5th while the ships were still far to the north, six being sunk by bombs and six were torpedoed by submarines. One ship was bombed on the 6th. Four were torpedoed by U-boats off the south-west coast of Novaya Zemlya between the evening of the 6th and the early morning of the 8th.

By the 7th of July, most of the escort, the rescue ship Zamalek and five merchant ships, the Ocean Freedom, Hoosier, Benjamin Harrison, El Capitan and Samual Chase, had reached Matochkin Strait. Commodore Dowding, whose ship the River Afton had been sunk by a U-boat on the 5th, arrived in HMS Lotus, which had rescued him and 36 survivors, including the Master after 3.5 hours on rafts and floats. After a conference on board HMS Palomares, these merchantmen were formed into a convoy into a convoy and sailed that evening, escorted by the two AA ships, HMS Halcyon, HMS Salamander, HMS Britomart, HMS Poppy, HMS Lotus and HMS La Malouine and three A/S trawlers. The Benjamin Harrison soon got separated in fog and returned to the Matochkin Strait but the remainder were still in company when the fog temporarily cleared during the forenoon of the 8th, and course was shaped to pass east and south of Kolguyev Island. It was an anxious passage, much fog and ice was encountered and U-boats were known to be about. From time to time boatloads of survivors from other ships already sunk were encountered and picked up. A remainder of the fate that might be in store for any of them. During the night of 9-10 July some 40 bombers carried out high level attacks on this small convoy. The attacks lasted for four hours, the Hoosier and El Capitan were sunk by near misses some 60 nautical miles north of Cape Kanin. Four aircraft are believed to have been shot down. The attacks ended at 0230/10 and half an hour later two Russian flying boats appeared. The surviving ships arrived at Archangel the next day, 11 July. Three ships out of thirty-seven were now in port, not a very successful convoy so far. Things were however not that bad as Commodore Dowding thought at that moment. The rescue ship Rathlin with two merchant ships, the Donbass and the Bellingham had arrived on the 9th, having shot down an aircraft the day before, and before long the news of other ships sheltering in Novaya Zemlya came in.

At his special request, Commodore Dowding, despite all he had been through, left Archangel in HMS Poppy on 16 July, in company with HMS Lotus and HMS La Malouine, to form these merchant ships into a convoy and bring them to Archangel. After a stormy passage they arrived at Byelushya Bay on the 19th. There 12 survivors from the merchant Olopana were found. During the day the coast was searched and in the evening the Winston Salem was found agound and later the Empire Tide was found at anchor. The next morning Motochkin Strait was entered and five merchant ships were found at anchor, the Benjamin Harrison, Silver Sword, Troubadour, Ironclad and the Azerbaidjan. A Russian icebreaker (the Murman) was also there as was a Russian trawler (the Kerov). Also, one of the escorts of convoy PQ 17 was found there, the British A/S trawler Ayrshire.

Commodore Dowding wasted no time. A conference was held that forenoon and in the evening all ships sailed, the Commodore leading in the Russian icebreaker Murman. The Empire Tide, which had a lot of survivors from sunken ships aboard joined the convoy early the next day. The Winston Salem was however still aground with two Russian tugs standing by. Much fog was encountered during the passage which was uneventful except for two U-boat alarms. The escort was reinforced by HMS Pozarica, HMS Bramble, HMS Hazard, HMS Leda, HMS Dianella and two Russian destroyers on the 22th. The convoy arrived safe at Archangel on the 24th.

Four days later (on the 28th) the Winston Salem was finally refloated. She managed reached harbour as the last ship of the ill-fated PQ 17 convoy making a total of 11 survivors out of a total of 35 ships. It was realised afterwards by the Admiralty that the decision to scatter the convoy had been premature.

The disastrous passage of convoy PQ 17 tended to throw into the background the fortunes of the westbound convoy, QP 13. This convoy of 35 ships sailed in two parts from Archangel and Murmansk and joined at sea on 28 June under Commodore N.H. Gale. Thick weather prevailed during most of the passage, but the convoy was reported by enemy aircraft on 30 June while still east of Bear Island and again on 2 July. No attacks developed, the enemy focus was on the eastbound convoy. That afternoon the ill-fated convoy PQ 17 was passed.

After an uneventful passage, convoy QP 13 divided off the north-east coast of Iceland on 4 July. Commodore Gale with 16 merchant ships turned south for Loch Ewe while the remaining 9 merchant ships continued round the north coast of Iceland for Reykjavik. At 1900/5 these ships formed into a five column convoy. They were escorted by HMS Niger (SO), HMS Hussar, FFL Roselys, HMS Lady Madeleine and HMS St. Elstan. They were now approaching the north-west corner of Iceland. The weather was overcast, visibility about one mile, wind north-east, force 8, sea rough. No sights had been obtained since 1800/2 and the convoys position was considerably in doubt. At 1910/5 Commander Cubison (C.O. HMS Niger) suggested that the front of the convoy should be reduced to two columns in order to pass between Straumnes and the minefield off the north-west coast of Iceland. This was the first the convoy Commodore had heard of the existence of this minefield. Soon afterwards, Commander Cubison gave his estimated position at 2000/5 as 66°45’N, 22°22’W and suggested altering course 222° for Straumnes Point at that time. This was done. About two hours later, at 2200 hours, HMS Niger which had gone ahead to try to make landfall leaving HMS Hussar as a visual link with the convoy, sighted what she took to be North Cape bearing 150° at a range of one mile and ordered the course of the convoy to be altered to 270°. Actually what HMS Niger sighted was a large iceberg but this was not realised for some time. At 2240/5 HMS Niger blew up and sank with heavy loss of life, including Commander Cubison. Five minutes later a last signal from her, explaining her mistaken landfall and recommending a return to course 222° was handed to the convoy Commodore. But it was too late, already explosions were occurring amongst the merchant ships. The westerly course had led the convoy straight into the minefield. Considerable confusion prevailed, some thinking that a U-boat attack was in progress, other imagining a surface raider. Four ships were sunk, the Heffron, Hybert, Massmar and the Rodina and two were seriously damaged, the John Randolph and the Exterminator. Good rescue work was carried out by the escorts, especially the FFL Roselys which picked up 179 survivors from various ships. Meanwhile HMS Hussar had obtained a shore fix, led out the remaining merchant ships, which reformed on a southerly course for Reykjavik where they arrived without further misadventure.

9 Jul 1942
HMS La Malouine (Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR) picks up 30 survivors from the American merchant John Witherspoon that was torpedoed and sunk by German U-boat U-255 about 20 nautical miles from the shore of Novaya Zemlya in position 72°05'N, 48°30'E.

2 Sep 1942

Operation EV, convoy operations to and from northern Russia, convoy's PQ 18 and QP 14.

Convoy PQ 18 from Loch Ewe to the Kola Inlet and convoy QP 14 from the Kola Inlet to Loch Ewe.

Convoy PQ 18 departed Loch Ewe on 2 September 1942 and arrived in the Kola Inlet on 21 September 1942.

On departure from Loch Ewe it was made up of the following merchant vessels; Africander (Panamanian, 5441 GRT, built 1921), Atheltemplar (British (tanker), 8992 GRT, built 1930), Campfire (American, 5671 GRT, built 1919), Charles R. McCormick (American, 6027 GRT, built 1920), Dan-Y-Bryn (British, 5117 GRT, built 1940), Empire Baffin (British, 6978 GRT, built 1941), Empire Beaumont (British, 7044 GRT, built 1942), Empire Morn (British, 7092 GRT, built 1941), Empire Snow (British, 6327 GRT, built 1941), Empire Stevenson (British, 6209 GRT, built 1941), Empire Trinstram (British, 7167 GRT, built 1942), Esek Hopkins (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Gateway City (American, 5432 GRT, built 1920), Goolistan (British, 5851 GRT, built 1929), Hollywood (American, 5498 GRT, built 1920), John Penn II (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942), Kentucky (American, 5446 GRT, built 1921), Lafayette (Russian, 5887 GRT, built 1919), Macbeth (Panamanian, 4941 GRT, built 1920), Mary Luckenbach (American, 5049 GRT, built 1919), Meanticut (American, 6061 GRT, built 1921), Nathaniel Greene (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Faith (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Oliver Ellsworth (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Oregonian (American, 4862 GRT, built 1917), Oremar (American, 6854 GRT, built 1919), Patrick Henry (American, 7191 GRT, built 1941), Sahale (American, 5028 GRT, built 1919), San Zotico (British (tanker), 5582 GRT, built 1919), Schoharie (American, 4971 GRT, built 1919), St. Olaf (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Temple Arch (British, 5138 GRT, built 1940), Virginia Dare (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942), Wacosta (American, 5432 GRT, built 1920), White Clover (Panamanian, 5462 GRT, built 1920) and William Moultrie (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942).

The RFA (Royal Fleet Auxiliary) tankers Black Ranger (3417 GRT, built 1941) and Grey Ranger (3313 GRT, built 1941) were also part of the convoy. These ships were known as ' Force Q '.

As was the rescue ship Copeland (British, 1526 GRT, built 1923).

The merchant vessel Beauregard (American, 5976 GRT, built 1920) had also sailed with the convoy but soon returned to Loch Ewe with engine trouble.

On departure from Loch Ewe the convoy was escorted by the destroyers HMS Campbell (A/Cdr. E.C. Coats, DSO, DSC, RN), HMS Mackay ( Lt. J.B. Marjoribanks, RN), escort destroyers HNoMS Eskdale (Lt.Cdr. S. Storheill), HMS Farndale (Cdr. D.P. Trentham, RN) and the A/S trawlers HMS Arab (T/Lt. F.M. Procter, RCNVR), HMS Duncton (T/Lt. J.P. Kilbee, RNR), HMS Hugh Walpole (T/Lt. J. Mackenzie, RNR), HMS King Sol (Lt. P.A. Read, RNR) and HMS Paynter (Lt. R.H. Nossiter, RANVR).

On 6 September 1942 the escort was reinforced by the destroyers HMS Montrose (Lt.Cdr. W.J. Phipps, OBE, RN), HMS Echo (Lt.Cdr. N. Lanyon, RN) and HMS Walpole (Lt. A.S. Pomeroy, RN) which came from Hvalfjord.

On 7 September 1942 three ships which had taken passage in this convoy arrived at Reykjavik, Iceland, these were the Gateway City, Oremar and San Zotico. Also the five A/S trawlers had parted company with the convoy.

Also on this day eight more merchant vessels joined the convoy coming from Reykjavik, these were the; Andre Marti (Russian, 2352 GRT, built 1918), Exford (American, 4969 GRT, built 1919), Komiles (Russian, 3962 GRT, built 1932), Petrovski (Russian, 3771 GRT, built 1921), Richard Bassett (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Stalingrad (Russian, 3559 GRT, built 1931), Sukhona (Russian, 3124 GRT, built 1918) and Tblisi (Russian, 7169 GRT, built 1912).

The Richard Bassett however soon returned to Reykjavik.

Also with this section were three motor minesweepers which were to be transferred to the Russian Navy, these were MMS 90 (Skr. J. Dinwoodie, RNR), MMS 203 ( Skr. J.H. Petherbridge, DSC, RNR) and MMS 212 ( T/Lt. W.J. Walker, RNVR).

These ships were escorted by the destroyers HMS Malcolm (A/Cdr. A.B. Russell, RN), HMS Amazon (Lt.Cdr.(Emgy) Lord Teynham, RN), HMS Achates (Lt.Cdr. A.H.T. Johns, RN), minesweepers HMS Gleaner (Lt.Cdr. F.J.G. Hewitt, DSC, RN), HMS Harrier (Cdr. A.D.H. Jay, DSC, RN), corvettes HMS Bergamot (Lt. R.T. Horan, RNR), HMS Bluebell (Lt. G.H. Walker, RNVR), HMS Bryony (Lt.Cdr. J.P. Stewart, DSC, RNR), HMS Camellia (T/Lt. R.F.J. Maberley, RNVR), A/S trawlers HMS Cape Argona (T/A/Lt.Cdr. E.R. Pate, RNR), HMS Cape Mariato (T/Lt. H.T.S. Clouston, RNVR), HMS Daneman (T/Lt. G.O.T.D. Henderson, RNVR), HMS St. Kenan (Lt. J. Mackay, RNR) and the AA ships HMS Alynbank (A/Capt.(Retd.) H.F. Nash, RN) and HMS Ulster Queen (A/Capt.(Retd.) C.K. Adam, RN).

When the Reykjavik section joined the convoy the escort destroyers HNoMS Eskdale and HMS Farndale parted company and proceeded to Hvalfjord. HMS Walpole also returned to Hvalfjord with defects as did HMS Amazon. After repairs, HMS Amazon proceeded to Akureyri.

HMS Campbell and HMS Mackay arrived at Hvalfjord on the 9th, having been detached from the convoy escort. They later went on to Akureyri.

Around 0615A/8 the minesweepers HMS Sharpshooter (Lt.Cdr. W.L. O'Mara, RN) departed Seidisfjord escorting the submarines HMS P 614 (Lt. D.J. Beckley, RN) and HMS P 615 (Lt. P.E. Newstead, RN). All three ships joined the convoy shortly after noon on the 9th.

Around 2100A/8, ' Force A ', made up of the destroyers HMS Onslow (Capt H.T. Armstrong, DSC and Bar, RN), HMS Offa (Lt.Cdr. R.A. Ewing, RN), HMS Onslaught (Cdr. W.H. Selby, RN), HMS Opportune (Cdr. M.L. Power, OBE, RN), HMS Ashanti (Cdr. R.G. Onslow, DSO, RN), HMS Eskimo (Cdr. E.G. Le Geyt, RN), HMS Somali (Lt.Cdr. C.D. Maud, DSC and Bar, RN) and HMS Tartar (Cdr. St.J.R.J. Tyrwhitt, DSC, RN) departed Akureyri for Spitsbergen where they were to refuel from ' Force P ' (see below).

Around 2145A/8, ' Force B ', made up of the AA cruiser HMS Scylla (Capt. I.A.P. Macintyre, CBE, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral R.L. Burnett, OBE, RN) and the destroyers HMS Milne (Capt. I.M.R. Campbell, RN), HMS Marne (Lt.Cdr. H.N.A. Richardson, DSO, DSC, RN), HMS Martin (Cdr. C.R.P. Thomson, DSO, RN), HMS Meteor (Lt.Cdr. D.J.B. Jewitt, RN), HMS Faulknor (Capt. A.K. Scott-Moncrieff, RN), HMS Fury (Lt.Cdr. C.H. Campbell, DSC and Bar, RN), HMS Impulsive (Lt.Cdr. E.G. Roper, DSC, RN), HMS Intrepid (Cdr. C.A.deW. Kitcat, RN) and the ' Carrier Force ' made up of the escort carrier HMS Avenger (Cdr. A.P. Colthurst, RN) and the escort destroyers HMS Wheatland (Lt.Cdr. R.de.L Brooke, RN) and HMS Wilton (Lt. A.P. Northey, DSC, RN) departed Seidisfjord to join the convoy which they did around 2200A/9.

Around 2230A/9, HMS Echo parted company with the convoy to return to Hvalfjord as did HMS Montrose which proceeded to Akureyri. Both destroyers arrived at their destinations on the 10th.

' Force A ', made up of the destroyers HMS Onslow, HMS Offa, HMS Onslaught, HMS Opportune, HMS Ashanti, HMS Eskimo, HMS Somali and HMS Tartar, arrived at Spitsbergen on the 11th, fuelled from ' Force P ' and departed P.M. to join convoy PQ 18 which they did in the morning of the 13th.

Meanwhile HMS Scylla, HMS Milne, HMS Marne, HMS Martin, HMS Meteor and HMS Intrepid parted company with the convoy at 1130A/11 to proceed to Spitsbergen to fuel from ' Force P '. The other destroyers / escort destroyers with the convoy fuelled from ' Force Q '.

HMS Scylla, HMS Milne, HMS Marne, HMS Martin, HMS Meteor and HMS Intrepid completed fuelling in the morning of the 13th and they rejoined the convoy around 1400A/13. The escort was complete then.

Meanwhile the convoy, had been picked up again by German aircraft on the 12th. Also at 2109A/12, the destroyer HMS Faulknor attacked a contact ahead of the convoy with depth charges in position 75°04'N, 04°49'E, this meant the end of the German submarine U-88.

On 13 September the convoy was heavily attacked by the enemy resulting in the loss of ten of the merchant vessels; by U-boat (U-408) Stalingrad and the Oliver Ellsworth and by German aircraft the Wacosta, Oregonian, Macbeth, Africander, Empire Stevenson, Empire Beaumont, John Penn and Sukhona.

On 14 September the German submarine U-457 hit the tanker Atheltemplar. The tanker burst into flames and was abandoned by her crew. HMS Harrier tried to scuttle the tanker with gunfire but failed to do so and she was last seen heavily on fire but still afloat. The capsized wreck was sunk by the German submarine U-408 in the afternoon.

Early in the afternoon the German submarine U-589 was hunted by Swordfish aircraft from HMS Avenger and she was sunk in position 75°40'N, 20°32'E with depth charges by HMS Onslow.

The German airforce also attacked the convoy on this day but concentrated initially on attacking the escort instead of the merchant ships. The HMS Avenger was heavily attacked but she was not hit though she had a lucky escape during a dive bomb attack. Torpedoes fired at her were dropped from long range due to effecive fire from her close escort, the escort destroyers HMS Wheatland and HMS Wilton and the AA ship HMS Ulster Queen which had also come to her aid.

In the afternoon the merchant vessel Mary Luckenbach was torpedoed. She exploded and completely vaporised due to her cargo of 1000 tons of TNT. There were no survivors.

On September 15th, German aircraft could not inflict damage to the convoy though some ships had narrow escapes. The U-boats could be kept at bay by the escorts.

In the early hours of the 16th, the German submarine U-457 tried to attack the convoy but she was depth charged and sunk by HMS Impulsive in position 75°05'N, 43°15'E.

Shortly before noon the destroyers HMS Offa and HMS Opportune conducted depth charge attacks on the German submarines U-255 and U-378 during which the former sustained some damage.

Around 1530A/16, HMS Scylla, HMS Avenger, Milne, Marne, Martin, Meteor, Faulknor, Fury, Impulsive, Intrepid, HMS Onslow, HMS Offa, HMS Onslaught, HMS Opportune, HMS Ashanti, HMS Eskimo, HMS Somali, HMS Tartar, HMS Wheatland, HMS Wilton, HMS Alynbank, HMS P 614 and HMS P 615 parted company with PQ 18 to join the westbound convoy QP 14 (see below) which they did the following morning. The two RFA tankers from ' Force Q ' were also with them.

On September 17th, the Russian destroyers Gremyashchiy, and Sokrushitelny joined the convoy escort.

On September 18th, the Russian destroyers Valerian Kyubishev and Uritsky joined the convoy as did the British minesweepers HMS Britomart (Lt.Cdr. S.S. Stammwitz, RN), HMS Halcyon (Lt.Cdr. C.H. Corbet-Singleton, DSC and Bar, RN), HMS Hazard (Lt.(Retd.) G.C. Hocart, RNR), HMS Salamander (Lt. W.R. Muttram, RN) joined the convoy escort. Also on this day the merchant vessel Kentucky was lost due to a German air attack.

The convoy arrived at Archangelsk on 21 September 1941. Some delay having been experienced due to heavy weather on the 19th.

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Convoy QP 14 departed Archangelsk on 13 September 1942 and arrived at Loch Ewe on 26 September 1942.

On departure from Archangelsk it was made up of the following merchant vessels; Alcoa Banner (American, 5035 GRT, built 1919), Bellingham (American, 5345 GRT, built 1920), Benjamin Harrison (American, 2191 GRT, built 1942), Deer Lodge (American, 6187 GRT, built 1919), Empire Tide (British, 6978 GRT, built 1941), Harmatris (British, 5395 GRT, built 1932), Minotaur (American, 4554 GRT, built 1918), Ocean Freedom (British, 7173 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Voice (British, 7174 GRT, built 1941), Samuel Chase (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Silver Sword (British, 4937 GRT, built 1919), Tobruk (Polish, 7048 GRT, built 1942), Troubadour (Panamanian, 6428 GRT, built 1920), West Nilus (American, 5495 GRT, built 1920) and Winston Salem (American, 6223 GRT, built 1920).

The rescue vessels Rathlin (British, 1600 GRT, built 1936) and Zamalek (British, 1567 GRT, built 1921) were also part of the convoy.

On departure from Archangelsk the convoy was escorted by the (Russian) destroyer Kuibyshev, Uritski, escort destroyers HMS Blankney (Lt.Cdr. P.F. Powlett, DSO and Bar, DSC, RN), HMS Middleton (Lt.Cdr. D.C. Kinloch, RN), minesweepers Britomart, HMS Bramble (Capt. J.H.F. Crombie, DSO, RN), Halcyon, Hazard, HMS Leda (A/Cdr.(Retd.) A.H. Wynne-Edwards, RN), Salamander, HMS Seagull (Lt.Cdr. C.H. Pollock, RN), corvettes HMS Dianella (T/Lt. J.G. Rankin, RNR), HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR), HMS Lotus (Lt. H.J. Hall, RNR), HMS Poppy (Lt. N.K. Boyd, RNR), A/S trawlers HMS Ayrshire (T/Lt. L.J.A. Gradwell, RNVR), HMS Lord Austin (T/Lt. O.B. Egjar, RNR), HMS Lord Middleton (T/Lt. R.H. Jameson, RNR), HMS Northern Gem (Skr.Lt. W.J.V. Mullender, DSC, RD, RNR), and the AA ships HMS Palomares (A/Capt.(rtd.) J.H. Jauncey, RN) and HMS Pozarica (A/Capt.(rtd.) E.D.W. Lawford, RN).

In the morning of the 17th, HMS Scylla, HMS Avenger, Milne, Marne, Martin, Meteor, Faulknor, Fury, Impulsive, Intrepid, HMS Onslow, HMS Offa, HMS Onslaught, HMS Opportune, HMS Ashanti, HMS Eskimo, HMS Somali, HMS Tartar, HMS Wheatland, HMS Wilton, HMS Alynbank, HMS P 614 and HMS P 615 joined the convoy. The two RFA tankers from ' Force Q ' were also with them.

Also on the 17th, the Kuibyshev, Uritski, Britomart, Halcyon, Hazard and Salamander parted company with the convoy to join the escort of convoy PQ 18 (see above).

On the 18th (or early on the 19th ?) the destroyers HMS Fury and HMS Impulsive were detached from the convoy for Spitsbergen. They rejoined the convoy around 1700A/19 having escorted the RFA tanker Oligarch from Spitsbergen to the convoy. The destroyer HMS Worcester was also with them.

On 20 September U-boats began to attack the convoy and the minesweeper HMS Leda was torpedoed and sunk around 0530A/20 by U-435 in position 76°30'N, 05°00'E. She sank around 0700A/20.

Shortly after noon, the submarines HMS P 614 and HMS P 615 also parted company with the convoy to proceed to Lerwick but they first swept astern of the convoy to try to attack shadowing enemy submarines. HMS P 614 attacked U-408 with four torpedoes thinking to have sunk the enemy but this was not the case.

Later that day the merchant vessel Silver Sword was torpedoed and sunk by U-255. The Silver Sword did not sink immediately, her wreck was scuttled by gunfire from the destroyer HMS Worcester.

And finally on the 20th, the destroyer HMS Somali was torpedoed and damaged around 1850A/20 by the U-703. The ship was taken in tow towards Akureyri or Seidisfjord by her sistership HMS Ashanti and screened by HMS Opportune, HMS Eskimo and HMS Intrepid but HMS Somali finally breaking in two around 0230A/24 when the weather conditions had worsened. Both halves sank quickly.

Also on this day, Rear-Admiral Burnett transferred his flag from HMS Scylla to HMS Milne. HMS Scylla, HMS Avenger, HMS Fury, HMS Wheatland and HMS Wilton parted company to proceed to Seidisfjord where they arrived on 22 September. The destroyer HMS Onslaught was detached to escort the staggler Troubadour. They later joined the remainder of ' Force P ' (RFA tanker Blue Ranger, destroyer HMS Windsor and the escort destroyers HMS Cowdray and HMS Oakley) which had departed Spitsbergen. On 22 September they joined HMS Somali under tow by HMS Ashanti and the escorting destroyers HMS Opportune, HMS Eskimo and HMS Intrepid.

Three German submarines were attacked by the A/S escort on 20 September, these were U-378 by a Swordfish aircraft from HMS Avenger, U-212 by HMS Ashanti and finally U-255 by HMS Eskimo. All submarines managed to escape without damage.

On 21 September a Catalina (RAF(Norwegian) 330Sq./Z) attacked the German submarine U-606 but the aircraft is shot down by the enemy.

Early on 22 September, HMS Milne detached from the convoy to proceed to Seidisfjord where she arrived in the evening.

On 22 September the German submarine U-435 again attacked the convoy and managed to sink the merchant vessels Bellingham, Ocean Voyce and the RFA tanker Grey Ranger.

On 23 September, HMS Onslow, HMS Offa, HMS Worcester and the two rescue ships, were detached to Seidisfjord arriving there later on the same day.

Also on 23 September, HMS Scylla, HMS Avenger, HMS Milne, HMS Wheatland and HMS Wilton departed Seidisfjord for Scapa Flow where they arrived on the 24th.

The staggler Troubadour was detached from ' Force P ' on the 24th to proceed to Akureyri.

On 24 September, HMS Marne was detached to proceed to Seidisfjord to land the survivors that she had picked up from the Catalina aircraft that had been shot down on 21 September by U-606. She rejoined the convoy later the same day. HMS Onslow, HMS Offa, HMS Worcester and the two rescue ship left Seidisfjord to rejoin the convoy which they did on the 25th.

On the 25th, HMS Martin was detached to escort the staggler Winston Salem while HMS Ayrshire was detached to Seidisfjord with defects.

Around 2115A/25, HMS Ashanti, HMS Intrepid, HMS Onslaught and HMS Opportune arrived at Scapa Flow. HMS Eskimo arrived around 0700A/26. Following the sinking of Somali they had detached from ' Force P ' on the 24th.

On the 26th, HMS Faulknor, HMS Onslow, HMS Offa, HMS Marne, HMS Meteor, HMS Tartar, HMS Impulsive, HMS Worcester, HMS Blankney, HMS Middleton, HMS Bramble, HMS Seagull and the tankers Oligarch and Black Ranger were detached to Scapa Flow where they arrived on the same day.

The convoy arrived at Loch Ewe on the 26th.

The staggler Winston Salem arrived at Loch Ewe the following day after which HMS Martin proceeded to Scapa Flow arriving around 1930A/27.

' Force P ', Blue Ranger escorted by HMS Windsor, HMS Cowdray and HMS Oakley arrived at Scapa Flow on the 27th.

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To provide cover and support for this convoy four forces were deployed.

' Force P ' was the Spitsbergen refueling force. It was made up of the RFA tankers Blue Ranger (3417 GRT, built 1941) and Oligarch (6894 GRT, built 1918) and departed Scapa Flow on 3 September escorted by the destroyer HMS Windsor (Lt.Cdr. D.H.F. Hetherington, DSC, RN) and the escort destroyers HMS Bramham (Lt. E.F. Baines, RN), HMS Cowdray (Lt.Cdr. C.W. North, RN), and Oakley (Lt.Cdr. T.A. Pack-Beresford, RN).

On 4 September the destroyer HMS Worcester (Lt.Cdr. W.A. Juniper, RN), coming from Seidisfjord, Iceland, relieved HMS Bramham which then proceeded to Seidisfjord. She later went on to Akureyri.

' Force P ' arrived at Spitsbergen (Lowe Sound) on 10 September. [For futher movements of ' Force P ' see the text above and below.]

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There was also the ' Cruiser Force ' was was to provide close cover for the convoys during their passage through the most dangerous area. Also two ships of the force were to land stores, personnel and dogs on Spitsbergen (Operation Gearbox II). It was made up of the heavy cruisers HMS Norfolk (Capt. E.G.H. Bellars, RN, flying the flag of Vice-Admiral S.S. Bonham-Carter, CB, CVO, DSO, RN), HMS London (Capt. R.M. Servaes, CBE, RN), HMS Cumberland (Capt. A.H. Maxwell-Hyslop, AM, RN), HMS Suffolk (Capt. R. Shelley, CBE, RN), light cruiser HMS Sheffield (Capt. A.W. Clarke, RN) and the destroyers HMS Echo, HMS Eclipse (Lt.Cdr. E. Mack, DSO, DSC, RN) and HMS Bulldog (Cdr. M. Richmond, OBE, DSO, RN). They departed Hvalfjord around 1145Z/14.

Around 1330A/15, they were joined in position 67°40'N, 19°55'W by HMS Amazon coming from Akureyri.

Around 1200A/16, HMS Cumberland and HMS Eclipse were detached for operation Gearbox II.

In the evening of the 16th the destroyers were fuelled by the cruisers. Due to these ships having to be available to intercept and engage German surface forces in case these would come out to attack the convoys the fuel levels in the destroyers were kept as high as possible. HMS Bulldog was fuelled by HMS Norfolk, HMS Echo was fuelled by HMS London, HMS Amazon was fuelled by HMS Suffolk.

At 0600A/17, HMS Eclipse was detached by HMS Cumberland to patrol to seaward while HMS Cumberland went on to Barentsburg. She anchored there around 1420A/17 and the first boat with stores was underway at 1445A/17. At 1900A/17, HMS Eclipse came alongside to fuel. This was completed at 2110A/17 and she got underway. At 2145A/17 weighted and departed Barentsburg to rejoin the other cruisers which she did around 0600A/18.

At 2200A/17, HMS Sheffield parted company with the other cruisers for her part in Operation Gearbox II. She anchored off Barentsburg around 1530A/18 and commenced disembarking. At 1930A/18, HMS Eclipse went alongside to fuel which was completed at 2105A/18. HMS Sheffield and HMS Eclipse departed the fjord around 2130A/18. They rejoined the other ships around 1050A/19.

Meanwhile in the late afternoon / early evening of the 17th, HMS Amazon, HMS Bulldog and HMS Echo were fuelled by ' Force P ' which had come out of the fjords. The destroyers were again topped off by ' Force P ' in the later morning / afternoon of the 18th.

The ' Cruiser Force ' returned to Hvalfjord around 1730Z/22.

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And finally there was the ' Distant Cover / Battlefleet Force '. This force was made up of the battleships HMS Anson (Capt. H.R.G. Kinahan, CBE, RN, flying the flag of Vice-Admiral B.A. Fraser, CB, KBE, RN, 2nd in Command, Home Fleet), HMS Duke of York (Capt. G.E. Creasy, DSO, RN), light cruiser HMS Jamaica (Capt. J.L. Storey, RN), destroyers HMS Keppel (Cdr. J.E. Broome, RN), HMS Campbell, HMS Mackay, HMS Montrose and the escort destroyer HMS Bramham. They departed from Akureyri around 1700Z/11 to provide cover for convoy PQ 18. The destroyers had sailed a little earlier presumably to conduct an A/S sweep off the fjord first.

They returned to Akureyri around 0900Z/14 except for HMS Bramham which had been detached to proceed to Hvalfjord.

HMS Anson, HMS Duke of York, HMS Jamaica, HMS Keppel, HMS Campbell, HMS Mackay and HMS Montrose departed again around 0630Z/19 to provide cover for convoy QP 14. The destroyer HMS Broke (Lt.Cdr. A.F.C. Layard, RN) had meanwhile joined them at Akureyri and sailed with them. Once again the destroyers joined off the fjord presumable having conducted an A/S sweep of the fjord first.

The ' Battlefleet Force ' arrived at Hvalfjord around 2100Z/22.

8 Nov 1942

Convoy KMS 3.

This convoy departed the U.K. (Clyde) on 8 November 1942.

It was made up of the following (troop) transports;
Alexander Hamilton (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Baltonia (British, 2013 GRT, built 1925), Begum (British, 5843 GRT, built 1922), Belgian Seaman (Belgian, 7023 GRT, built 1941), Benedict (British, 4949 GRT, built 1930), Benledi (British, 5943 GRT, built 1930), Bretwalda (British, 4906 GRT, built 1939), Caithness (British, 4970 GRT, built 1935), Cardium (British (tanker), 8236 GRT, built 1931), Carlton (British, 7210 GRT, built 1942), City of Venice (British, 8762 GRT, built 1924), Coombe Hill (British, 7268 GRT, built 1942), Dahomain (British, 5277 GRT, built 1929), Eastern City (British, 5185 GRT, built 1941), Empire Banner (British, 6699 GRT, built 1942), Empire Centaur (British, 7041 GRT, built 1942), Empire Flamingo (British, 4994 GRT, built 1920), Empire Foam (British, 7047 GRT, built 1941), Empire Prince (British, 7030 GRT, built 1942), Empire Shearwater (British, 4970 GRT, built 1920), Empire Summer (British, 6949 GRT, built 1941), Empire Webster (British, 7043 GRT, built 1942), Empire Wyclif (British, 6966 GRT, built 1941), English Monarch (British, 4557 GRT, built 1924), Forest (British, 4998 GRT, built 1937), Fort Babine (British, 7135 GRT, built 1942), Fort Bourbon (British, 7133 GRT, built 1942), Fort Chilcotin (British, 7133 GRT, built 1942), Fort Lac la Ronge (British, 7131 GRT, built 1942), Fort McLeod (British, 7127 GRT, built 1942), Francis Scott Key (American, 7191 GRT, built 1941), Grangepark (British, 5132 GRT, built 1919), Hindustan (British, 5245 GRT, built 1940), Inventor (British, 6210 GRT, built 1935), James Monroe (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), John Marshall (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Kong Sverre (Norwegian, 7238 GRT, built 1941) Luther Martin (British, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Manchester Citizen (British, 5343 GRT, built 1925), Mobile City (British, 6157 GRT, built 1920), Ocean Coast (British, 1173 GRT, built 1935), Ocean Pelgrim (British, 7178 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Valentine (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Victory (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Wayfarer (British, 7178 GRT, built 1942), Orient City (British, 5095 GRT, built 1940), Prins Harald (Norwegian, 7244 GRT, built 1942), Rajput (British, 5497 GRT, built 1925), Tawali (Dutch, 8178 GRT, built 1931), Thistledale (British, 7241 GRT, built 1942), Thomas Pinckney (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942), Thomas Stone (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Trentbank (British, 5060 GRT, built 1929), Troubadour (British, 5808 GRT, built 1920) and William M. Stewart (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942).

The tanker British Chivaldry (British, 7118 GRT, built 1929) was also with the convoy as escort oiler.

The boom carrier HMS Leonian (5424 GRT, built 1936) (A/Cdr.(Retd.) R.W. Lundy, OBE, RNR) was also part of the convoy.

On departure from the U.K. the convoy was escorted by the sloops HMS Fowey (Lt.Cdr. R.M. Aubrey, RN), HMS Black Swan (Cdr. T.A.C. Pakenham, RN) and the corvettes HMS Campion (Lt.Cdr. H.D. Horwood, RD, RNR), HMS Carnation (Lt. A. Branson, RNR), HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR), HMS Mallow (Lt. W.R.B. Noall, DSO, RNR), HMS Myosotis (Lt. G.P.S. Lowe, RNVR), HMS Nasturtium (Lt. C.D. Smith, DSC, RNR), HMS Stonecrop (Lt.Cdr. J.P. Smythe, RNR), HMCS Lunenburg (T/Lt. W.E. Harrison, RCNVR) and HMCS Weyburn (T/A/Lt.Cdr. T.M.W. Golby, RCNR).

On 20 November 1942, to the West of Gibraltar, the convoy was attacked by the German submarine U-263 which managed to torpedo and sink the Grangepark and Prins Harald.

On 21 November 1942, the Gibraltar section of the convoy of five transports [identity to follow] parted company as did HMS Fowey, HMS Black Swan, HMS Carnation, HMS La Malouine, HMS Mallow and HMS Myosotis. HMCS Lunenburg also proceeded to Gribraltar with defects to her Asdic installation. After repairs she departed again later the same day to rejoin the convoy. The transport Hindustan also made a short stop at Gibraltar before rejoining the convoy.

On 21 November the RFA tankers Dingledale and Brown Ranger departed Gibraltar to join the convoy as did the destroyers HMS Venomous (Cdr. H.W. Falcon-Stewart, RN), HMS Verity, (Lt.Cdr. R. Horncastle, RN), HMS Wivern (Cdr. M.D.C. Meyrick, RN), sloops HMS Fleetwood (Cdr. W.B. Piggott, OBE, RD, RNR), HMS Enchantress (Lt.Cdr. A.E.T. Christie, OBE, RN) and the corvettes HMS Coreopsis (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Davies, RNVR) and HMS Jonquil (Lt.Cdr. R.E.H. Partington, RD, RNR).

On 23 November the convoy was joined by the destroyers HMS Quality (Lt.Cdr. G.L. Farnfield, DSO, RN), HMS Quentin (Lt.Cdr. A.H.P. Noble, DSC, RN) and HMAS Quiberon (Cdr. H.W.S. Browning, OBE, RN) coming from Oran. They had conducted an A/S sweep while en-route to join the convoy.

The AA ship HMS Alynbank (A/Capt.(Retd.) H.F. Nash, RN) joined the convoy on 23 November 1942 coming from Oran / Mers-el-Kebir. The minesweepers HMS Brixham (Lt. G.A. Simmers, RNR) and HMS Polruan (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) J.S. Landers, RNR) also joined the convoy at some time.

The convoy was later split up into several sections, for Oran, Algiers, Bougie and Bone.

The Oran Section of 11 ships and HMS Leonian arrived there (around 1030A) on 23 November 1942 escorted by HMS Quality, HMS Quentin and HMAS Quiberon.

On 24 November German aircraft torpedoed and sank the Trentbank (which was to proceed to Bougie) in position 36°40'N, 01°11'E.

The Algiers Section arrived there on 24 November 1942 escorted by HMS Alynbank, HMS Enchantress, HMS Coreopsis, HMS Jonquil, HMS Brixham and HMS Polruan.

The convoy was joined on 24 November by some escorts coming from Algiers. These were the escort destroyers HMS Lamerton (Lt.Cdr. C.R. Purse, DSC, RN), HMS Wheatland (Lt.Cdr. R. de L. Brooke, DSC, RN), HMS Blean (Lt. N.J. Parker, RN) and the corvettes HMS Convolvulus (A/Lt.Cdr. R.F.R. Yarde-Buller, RNVR) and HMS Vetch (T/A/Lt.Cdr. H.J. Beverley, DSO, DSC, RNR). Also the motor minesweepers HM MMS 9, HM MMS 47, HM MMS 80, HM MMS 81, HM MMS 135 and HM MMS 184 joined the convoy for passage to Bone.

The Bougie section of KMS 3 arrived there on 25 November 1942. [Details to follow.]

The Bone section of KMS 3 was attacked by enemy aircraft near Cap de Fer around 1400A/25. No damage was reported.

The Bone section of KMS 3 arrived there on 26 November 1942. [Details to follow.]

19 Dec 1942
HMS H 34 (Lt. G.M. Noll, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMS Aubretia (Lt. G.D. Fowler, RNR), HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR), HMS Stonecrop (Lt.Cdr. J.P. Smythe, RNR) and HMS Violet (Lt. C.N. Stewart, RNR). (5)

20 Dec 1942
HMS H 34 (Lt. G.M. Noll, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR), HMS Violet (Lt. C.N. Stewart, RNR), HMS Fowey (Cdr.(Retd.) L.B.A. Majendie, RN), HMS Carnation (Lt. A. Branson, RNR) and HMS St. Elstan (Lt. R.M. Roberts, RNR). (5)

1 Feb 1943
HMS H 44 (Lt. I.S. McIntosh, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMS Alisma (Lt.Cdr. M.G. Rose, RANVR), HMS Pink (Lt. R. Atkinson, DSC, RNR), HMS Carnation (Lt. A. Branson, RNR), HMS Mallow (Lt. W.R.B. Noall, DSC, RNR), HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR) and HMS Violet (Lt. C.N. Stewart, RNR). (6)

2 Feb 1943
HMS H 44 (Lt. I.S. McIntosh, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMS Carnation (Lt. A. Branson, RNR), HMS Mallow (Lt. W.R.B. Noall, DSC, RNR), HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR) and HMS Violet (Lt. C.N. Stewart, RNR). (6)

3 Feb 1943
HMS H 44 (Lt. I.S. McIntosh, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMS Carnation (Lt. A. Branson, RNR), HMS Aubretia (Lt. G.D. Fowler, RNR), HMS Black Swan (Capt. T.A.C. Pakenham, RN) and HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR). (6)

23 Mar 1943
HMS H 28 (Lt. K.H. Martin, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMS Mallow (T/A/Lt.Cdr. H.T.S. Clouston, RNVR), HMS Myosotis (T/Lt. R. Lugg, RNR), HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR), HMS Dianthus (T/A/Lt.Cdr. N.F. Israel, RNR) and USS Spencer. (7)

25 Mar 1943
HMS H 44 (Lt. P.S. Beale, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMS Keppel (Lt.Cdr. R.B.S. Tennant, RN), HMS Clover (Lt. P.H. Grieves, RNR), HMS Stonecrop (Lt.Cdr. J.P. Smythe, RNR) and HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR). (8)

26 Mar 1943
HMS H 44 (Lt. P.S. Beale, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMS Stonecrop (Lt.Cdr. J.P. Smythe, RNR), HMS La Malouine (T/Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR), HMS Mallow (T/A/Lt.Cdr. H.T.S. Clouston, RNVR), HMS Myosotis (T/Lt. R. Lugg, RNR), HMS Keppel (Lt.Cdr. R.B.S. Tennant, RN), HMS Clover (Lt. P.H. Grieves, RNR) and HMS Bergamot (Lt. R.T. Horan, RNR). (8)

2 Apr 1943
HMS La Malouine (Lt. V.D.H. Bidwell, RNR) picks up survivors from the British merchant Katha that was torpedoed by German U-boat U-124 and sunk about 320 nautical miles west of Oporto, Portugal in position 41°02'N, 15°39'W.

21 May 1943

Combined convoy OS 48 / KMS 15G.

This combined convoy assembled off Oversay on 21 May 1943.

It was made up of the following merchant vessels; Baron Herries (British, 4574 GRT, built 1940), Boronesa (British, 8663 GRT, built 1918), Benjamin Williams (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942), Bradford City (British, 7266 GRT, built 1943), City of Adelaide (British, 6589 GRT, built 1920), City of Canberra (British, 7484 GRT, built 1927), City of Khios (British, 5574 GRT, built 1925), Clan MacIver (British, 4500 GRT, built 1925), Dalhanna (British, 5571 GRT, built 1930), Delane (British, 6054 GRT, built 1938), Duke of Sparta (British, 5397 GRT, built 1940), Eastgate (British, 5032 GRT, built 1940), Empire Livingstone (British, 6997 GRT, built 1941), Empire Miranda (British, 7054 GRT, built 1943), Empire Prospero (British, 6766 GRT, built 1943), Empire Rosalind (British, 7290 GRT, built 1943), Empire Splendour (British, 7335 GRT, built 1942), Empire Stanley (British, 6921 GRT, built 1941), Empire Sunbeam (British, 6711 GRT, built 1941), Empire Tide (British, 6978 GRT, built 1941), Empire Trent (British, 5006 GRT, built 1927), Empire Trumpet (British, 7059 GRT, built 1943), Fort Churchill (British, 7129 GRT, built 1942), Fort Finlay (British, 7134 GRT, built 1942), Fort Jemseg (British, 7134 GRT, built 1943), Fort Lac La Ronge (British, 7131 GRT, built 1942), Fort Steele (British, 7133 GRT, built 1942), George Chamberlain (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Hardingham (British, 7269 GRT, built 1942), Hermiston (British, 4813 GRT, built 1939), Historian (British, 5074 GRT, built 1924), Incomati (British, 7369 GRT, built 1934), Industria (British, 4850 GRT, built 1940), Inventor (British, 6210 GRT, built 1935), Johilla (British, 4042 GRT, built 1937), John Vining (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Kaituna (British, 4914 GRT, built 1938), Kindat (British, 4358 GRT, built 1938), Lodestone (British, 4877 GRT, built 1938), Madras City (British, 5080 GRT, built 1940), Margalau (British, 4541 GRT, built 1926), Nairung (British, 5414 GRT, built 1942), Narbada (British, 8988 GRT, built 1915), Nela (British, 7220 GRT, built 1916), Ocean Valour (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Vista (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Wanderer (British, 7178 GRT, built 1942), Panaghis (Greek, 5187 GRT, built 1920), Port Melbourne (British, 9142 GRT, built 1914), Pundit (British, 5305 GRT, built 1919), Regin (Norwegian, 1386 GRT, built 1917), Rookley (British, 4998 GRT, built 1940), Stuyvesant (Dutch, 4249 GRT, built 1918), Thysville (Belgian, 8351 GRT, built 1922), Tudor Star (British, 7199 GRT, built 1919), Urlana (British, 6852 GRT, built 1941), Vancouver City (British, 7261 GRT, built 1942), Wearpool (British, 4982 GRT, built 1936) and Zypenberg (Dutch, 4973 GRT, built 1920).

The RFA tanker Celerol (British (tanker), 2649 GRT, built 1917) was also with the convoy.

The convoy was escorted by the AA ship HMS Alynbank (A/Capt.(Retd.) the Hon. V.M. Wyndham-Quin, RN), sloop HMS Fowey (Cdr.(Retd.) L.B.A. Majendie, RN) and the corvettes HMS Bergamot (Lt. R.T. Horan, RNR), HMS Bryony (T/Lt. T. Hand, RNR), HMS Campion (Lt.Cdr. A. Brown, RNR), HMS La Malouine (Lt. W.A. Ives, RNR), HMS Mallow (T/A/Lt.Cdr. H.T.S. Clouston, RNVR), HMS Myosotis (T/Lt. R. Lugg, RNR), HMS Stonecrop (Lt.Cdr. J.P. Smythe, RNR). The minesweeper HMS Sharpshooter (Lt.Cdr. W.L. O'Mara, RN), which was en-route to the Mediterranean Station was also part of the escort.

Distant cover during part of the convoy's passage was provided by the AA cruiser HMS Charybdis (Capt. G.A.W. Voelcker, RN) and the destroyer ORP Orkan (Cdr. S. Hryniewiecki) which had departed Plymouth on 23 May.

On 29 May the merchant vessels; Empire Envoy (British, 7046 GRT, built 1942), Empire Forest (British, 7025 GRT, built 1942), Fort Reliance (British, 7134 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Fame (British, 7173 GRT, built 1942) and another merchant vessel (?) joined coming from Gibraltar. They were escorted by the escort destroyer HMS Lauderdale (Lt. G.D. Pound, DSC, RN), corvette HMS Convolvulus (A/Lt.Cdr. R.F.R. Yarde-Buller, RNVR) and the A/S trawler HMS Foxtrot (T/Lt. J.B. Bald, RNVR).

The convoy then split up shortly afterwards.

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Convoy KMS 15G proceeded to Gibraltar. This convoy was made up of the following merchant ships; Baron Herries, Benjamin Williams, Bradford City, City of Adelaide, City of Canberra, City of Khios, Clan MacIver, Dalhanna, Duke of Sparta, Empire Miranda, Empire Prospero, Empire Rosalind, Empire Splendour, Empire Stanley, Empire Sunbeam, Empire Tide, Empire Trumpet, Fort Churchill, Fort Finlay, Fort Lac La Ronge, George Chamberlain, Hardingham, Industria, Investor, John Vining, Kaituna, Kindat, Madras City, Nairung, Ocean Valour, Ocean Vista, Ocean Wanderer, Pundit, Regin, Vancouver City and Wearpool.

RFA tanker Celerol was also with them.

They were escorted by HMS Alynbank, HMS Lauderdale, HMS Sharpshooter, HMS Bergamot, HMS Bryony, HMS Convolvulus and HMS Foxtrot.

The convoy arrived at Gibraltar on 30 May 1943.

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Convoy OS 48 proceeded to Freetown. This convoy was made up of the following merchant ships; Baronesa, Delane, Empire Livingstone, Empire Trent, Fort Jemseg, Fort Steele, Hermiston, Historian, Incomati, Johilla, Lodestone, Margalau, Narbada, Nela, Panaghis, Port Melbourne, Rookley, Stuyvesant, Thysville, Tudor Star, Urlana and Zypenberg.

Shortly after the convoy's had split five more merchant vessels joined the convoy; Empire Barrie (British, 7168 GRT, built 1942), Fort Douglas (British, 7129 GRT, built 1942), Fort Drew (British, 7134 GRT, built 1943) and Fort Thompson (British, 7134 GRT, built 1942) coming from Casablanca. They were escorted by ?. [ADM 199/639 gives the escort as the sloop HMS Folkestone but this ship was refitting in the UK so this can't be correct.]

And there was also the Charles Schiaffino (French, 3664 GRT, built 1930) which joined coming from Safi.

After the convoy's split, convoy OS 48 was escorted by HMS Fowey, HMS Campion, HMS La Malouine, HMS Mallow, HMS Myosotis, HMS Stonecrop.

During the passage the merchant ships Empire Barrie and Fort Steele were detached to Dakar.

The merchant vessel Empire Addison (British, 7010 GRT, built 1942) joined coming from Dakar.

The convoy arrived at Freetown on 7 June 1943.

13 Jun 1943

Convoy SL 131.

This convoy departed Freetown on 13 June 1943.

On departure from Freetown the convoy was made up of the following merchant vessels; Alphard (Dutch, 5483 GRT, built 1937), Anna Odland (Norwegian, 4980 GRT, built 1939), Argyll (British, 4897 GRT, built 1939), Bodegraven (Dutch, 5541 GRT, 1929), Cap Cantin (British (former French), 3317 GRT, built 1933), Cap Padaran (British (former French), 8009 GRT, built 1922), City of Christiania (British, 4940 GRT, built 1921), Cordillera (British, 6865 GRT, built 1920), Dagrun (Norwegian, 4562 GRT, built 1928), Deido (British, 3894 GRT, built 1928), Empire Bardolph (British, 7063 GRT, built 1943), Eskdalegate (British, 4250 GRT, built 1930), Fort Drew (British, 7134 GRT, built 1943), Fort McLeod (British, 7127 GRT, built 1942), Fort Rupert (British, 7142 GRT, built 1942), Fort Ville Marie (British, 7122 GRT, built 1941), Karmt (Norwegian, 4991 GRT, built 1938), Lowlander (British, 8059 GRT, built 1925), Peterston (British, 4680 GRT, built 1925), Sobo (British, 5353 GRT, built 1937), Sound Fisher (British, 2931 GRT, built 1941), St. Rosario (British, 4312 GRT, built 1937), Swiftscout (American, 8207 GRT, built 1921) and William Gaston (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942).

The RFA tanker Fortol (2629 GRT, built 1917) was also with the convoy as escort oiler.

On departure from Freetown the convoy was escorted by the HMS Fowey (Cdr.(Retd.) L.B.A. Majendie, RN) sloop and the corvettes HMS Campion (Lt.Cdr. A. Brown, RNR), HMS La Malouine (Lt. W.A. Ives, RNR), HMS Mallow (T/A/Lt.Cdr. H.T.S. Clouston, RNVR), HMS Myosotis (T/Lt. R. Lugg, RNR) and HMS Stonecrop (Lt.Cdr. J.P. Smythe, RNR).

Around 0600Z/16, in position 13°58'N, 17°33'W the Swiftscout and William Gaston parted company to proceed to Trinidad independently.

Around 0945Z/16, in position 14°29'N, 17°38'W, the merchant vessel Danae II (British, 2660 GRT, built 1936) joined the convoy coming from Dakar. She had been escorted to the rendezvous by the motor launches HMS ML 289 and ML 574 which then returned to Dakar.

Around 1940Z/24, in position 34°02'N, 10°03'W, the tanker Thorshovdi (Norwegian, 9944 GRT, built 1937) joined the convoy.

At 1015A/25, convoy MKS 15G joined the convoy in position 35°25'N, 10°11'W.
This convoy was made up of the following merchant vessels; Baron Dunmore (British, 3938 GRT, built 1933), Baron Yarborough (British, 3388 GRT, 1928), Blairdevon (British, 3282 GRT, built 1925), Empire Heath (British, 6643 GRT, built 1941), Fylingdale (British, 3918 GRT, built 1924), Framlington Court (British, 4888 GRT, built 1924), Grodno (British, 2458 GRT, built 1919), Gullpool (British, 4868 GRT, built 1928), Hallfried (Norwegian, 2968 GRT, built 1918), Kingsborough (British, 3368 GRT, built 1928), Lublin (Polish, 1409 GRT, built 1932), Monkleigh (British, 5203 GRT, built 1927), Norheim (Norwegian (tanker), 9816 GRT, built 1941), Ocean Valentine (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942) and Tynemouth (British, 3168 GRT, built 1940).

With these ships also the damaged fast minelayer HMS Manxman (Capt. H.W. Williams, RN) in tow of the tug HMS Bustler joined.

Also two merchant vessel which came from Lisbon joined, these were the Finland (British, 1375 GRT, built 1939) and Spero (British, 1589 GRT, built 1922).

They were escorted by the corvettes Roselys, Renoncule and the A/S trawlers HMS Sapper (T/Lt. R.C. Lees, RNR), HMS Hornpipe (Lt. H.L. de Legh, RNR) and HMS Reighton Wyke (Skr. G.M. Sutherland, RNR). Two more vessels of the Lisbon section had been sunk by German aircraft while en-route to the rendezvous, these were the Shetland (British, 1846 GRT, built 1921) and Volturno (British, 3419 GRT, built 1914).

At 1230A/25, in position 35°31'N, 10°23'W, the Thorshovdi and Fortol parted company with the convoy to proceed to Gibraltar. They took HMS Hornpipe and HMS Reighton Wyke with them as escorts.

At 1710A/25, in position 35°42'N, 10°55'W, the damaged escort destroyer HMS Avon Vale (Lt.Cdr. P.A.R. Withers, DSO, RN) joined the convoy, but not as escort. She took station in the convoy.

Distant cover for the convoy when it passed the Bay of Biscay area was provided by the light (AA) cruiser HMS Scylla (Capt. I.A.P. Macintyre, CBE, DSO, RN).

At 0515A/30, in position 47°19'N, 17°02'W, HMS La Malouine parted company to proceed independently to Liverpool.

At 0430A/1, in position 50°39'N, 17°05'W, HMS Avon Vale parted company to proceed to Plymouth. She took the Renoncule with her as escort.

The convoy arrived in U.K. waters on 3 July 1943 where it split into several sections which then proceeded to their repective destinations. (9)

18 Oct 1943

Convoy KMS 30.

This convoy was assembled near Oversay on 18 October 1943.

It was made up of the following merchant vessels; Amstel (Dutch, 2115 GRT, built 1925), Baron Forbes (British, 3061 GRT, built 1915), Baron Stranraer (British, 3668 GRT, built 1929), Begum (British, 5843 GRT, built 1922), Belgian Seaman (Belgian, 7023 GRT, built 1941), Blairdevon (British, 3282 GRT, built 1925), Cape Hawke (British, 5081 GRT, built 1941), Carlton (British, 7210 GRT, built 1942), Celtic Monarch (British, 5824 GRT, built 1929), Corfirth (British, 1803 GRT, built 1934), Coulmore (British, 3670 GRT, built 1936), Cydonia (British, 3517 GRT, built 1927), Dan-Y-Bryn (British, 5117 GRT, built 1940), Empire Ballad (British, 6700 GRT, built 1942), Empire Cameron (British, 7015 GRT, built 1941), Empire Copperfield (British, 6013 GRT, built 1943), Empire Tern (British, 2479 GRT, built 1919), Eridan (French, 9928 GRT, built 1928), Errington Court (British, 4913 GRT, built 1925), Esneh (British, 1931 GRT, built 1919), Fort Fairford (British, 7134 GRT, built 1943), Fort Liard (British, 7133 GRT, built 1942), Fort Livingstone (British, 7135 GRT, built 1942), Fort Reliance (British, 7134 GRT, built 1942), Fort Tadoussac (British, 7129 GRT, built 1941), Greathope (British, 2297 GRT, built 1926), Harberton (British, 4585 GRT, built 1930), Lech (British, 1568 GRT, built 1934), Ledaal (Norwegian, 3076 GRT, built 1899), Lodestone (British, 4877 GRT, built 1938), Marwarri (British, 8067 GRT, built 1935), Nolisement (British, 5084 GRT, built 1928), Olga E. Embiricos (Greek, 4677 GRT, built 1922), Riverton (British, 7307 GRT, built 1943), Sinnington Court (British, 6910 GRT, built 1928), Stancleeve (British, 5970 GRT, built 1942), Topdalsfjord (Norwegian, 4271 GRT, built 1921) and Wearwood (British, 4597 GRT, built 1930).

On assembly the convoy was escorted by the destroyers HMS Highlander (Cdr. C.W. McMullen, DSC, RN), HMS Walker (Lt.Cdr. A.N. Rowell, RN) and the corvettes HMS Abelia (Lt. R.I. Floris, RNZNR), HMS Asphodel (Lt.Cdr. H.P. Carse, DSC, RNVR) and HMS Pennywort (A/Lt.Cdr. O.G. Stuart, RCNVR). The corvette HMS Clover (Lt. T.E. Fanshawe, RNR) was unable to join them due to defects but sailed later to overtake and join the convoy at sea which she did on 20 October.

The Blairdevon and Fort Livingstone collided in position 55°39'N, 07°21'W, not long after assembly of the convoy. Both ships being heavily damaged and the Blairdevon was even in a sinking conditiom but both ships were successfully towed to Moville where they arrived on 19 October. HMS Pennywort remained behind with the damaged ships but later rejoined the convoy.

The convoy encountered heavy weather conditions and several ships were forced to turn back, these were; Amstel, Baron Forbes, Begum, Empire Ballad and Nolisement. The Begum had to be towed back as she had lost her propeller.

On 23 October 1943, the merchant vessels Corfell (British, 1802 GRT, built 1934), Scottish Monarch (British, 7004 GRT, built 1943) departed Ponta Delgada, Azores to join the convoy around 1200Z/26 in position 41°53'N, 18°30'W. They were escorted by the destroyer HMS Viscount (Lt.Cdr. L.E. Woodhouse, RN) which was not to join the convoy.

From 26 to 28 October 1943, HMS Warwick and HMS Asphodel were not with the convoy as they had to fuel at Ponta Delgada and then rejoin the convoy.

During their absence the destroyer HMS Warwick (Cdr. Y.M. Cleeves, DSO, DSC, RD, RNR) and the corvettes HMS Buttercup (T/Lt. R.J. Jonckheere, RNR) and HMS Lavender (Lt. L.G. Pilcher, RNR) were with the convoy.

Also joining the convoy were the destroyers HMS Active (Lt.Cdr. P.G. Merriman, DSC, RN) and HMS Brilliant (Lt.Cdr. J. Smallwood, RN). They had departed Gibraltar on 27 October with orders to join the convoy around 1800A/28 in position 37°37'N, 18°00'W. On these destroyers the three escorts from the Azores were then to part company and return to the Azores.

The convoy arrived off Gibraltar during the night of 31 October / 1 November 1943. The Corfirth arrived at Horta on 3 November after having been detached from the convoy. [or straggled from the convoy ?.] The Cydonia arrived at Lisbon on 1 November after having been detached from the convoy.

The following ships were detached to Gibraltar; Cape Hawke, Carlton, Corfell, Dan-Y-Bryn, Empire Copperfield, Esneh, Fort Tadoussac, Greathope, Lech, Olga E. Embiricos, Scottish Monarch and Stancleeve.

The original escort also proceeded to Gibraltar and was replaced by a new escort made up of the AA cruiser HMS Colombo (Capt. D.H. Hall-Thompson, RN), escort destroyer HMS Haydon (Lt.Cdr. R.C. Watkin, RN), frigate HMS Barle (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Davies, RNVR), corvettes HMS Bryony (T/Lt. T. Hand, RNR), HMS La Malouine (Lt. W.A. Ives, RNR) and the A/S trawler L'Ajacienne.

The following merchant ships joined the convoy off Gibraltar; Benjamin Huntington (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), British Merit (British (tanker), 8093 GRT, built 1942), Empire Derwent (British, 4026 GRT, built 1930), Empire Trent (British, 5006 GRT, built 1927), F.T. Freylinghuysen (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), George Bancroft (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), John Mary Odin (American, 7244 GRT, built 1943), Jonathan Trumbull (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Joseph Warren (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Montaigne (French, 2770 GRT, built 1920), Nemours (French, 673 GRT, built 1935), Norjerv (Norwegian, 5582 GRT, 1919), Orminster (British, 5712 GRT, built 1914), Puck (Polish, 1065 GRT, built 1935), Wearfield (British (tanker), 9795 GRT, built 1943), William B. Woods (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943) and William Coddington (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943).

On 2 November 1943 the following ships were detached to Oran; Coulmore, Empire Tern, George Bancroft, Joseph Warren and Montaigne while the following merchant vessels joined the convoy coming from Oran; Alexander Graham Bell (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Augustus S. Merrimon (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Caid (British, 255 GRT, built 1906), Fort de Douaumont (French, 5266 GRT, built 1918), Francis L. Lee (American, 7191 GRT, built 1943), George B. McClellan (American, 7181 GRT, built 1942), George M. Bibb (American, 7180 GRT, built 1943), Grand Quevilly (French, 2844 GRT, built 1914), Joseph Hewes (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942), Kemp P. Battle (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Kosciuszko (Polish, 6852 GRT, built 1915), Leland Stanford (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Mont Viso (French, 4531 GRT, built 1921), Robert Dale Owen (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Robert F. Stockton (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Selvik (Norwegian, 1557 GRT, built 1920), William C. Endicott (American, 7181 GRT, built 1942), William F. Cody (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942) and Zebulon Pike (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942). The minesweeper HMS BYMS 2186 (?) also joined the convoy.

Around 0051A/3, the merchant vessel Mont Viso was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U-593. HMS Bryony went to the assistance of the torpedoed ship but it sank in two minutes. The corvette then picked up the survivors and later obtained an asdic contact on the enemy and attacked with depth charges during which the German submarine sustained damage due to which she was to return to Toulon for repairs.

Around 0900A/3, HMS Colombo was detached to return to Gibraltar. Between around 1100A/3 and 1410A/3 she was in the area where the Mont Viso had been sunk searching for survivors but none were found. She arrived at Gibraltar around 0805A/4.

On 3 November 1943 the following ships were detached to Algiers; Belgian Seaman, Caio, Empire Trent, Eridan, Fort Fairford, Fort Reliance, Lodestone, Orminster and Topsdaldjord as was HMS Haydon, while the following merchant vessels joined the convoy coming from Algiers; Anna Capano (Italian, 1345 GRT, built 1938), Chateau Pavie (French, 2047 GRT, built 1930), Empire Daring (British, 7059 GRT, built 1943), George C. Childress (American, 7245 GRT, built 1943), Lars Kruse (British, 1807 GRT, built 1923), Letitia (British, 13595 GRT, built 1925), Pan-Delaware (American (tanker), 8128 GRT, built 1918), Richmond Mumford Pearson (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942) and Ronan (British, 1489 GRT, built 1938). HMS Bryony also made a short stop at Oran to land the survivors of the Mont Viso before rejoining the convoy. The corvette HMS Bergamot (Lt. R.T. Horan, RNR) also joined the convoy off Algiers.

On 4 November 1943, the Empire Daring arrived at Bougie after having been detached from the convoy.

On 4 November 1943 the following ships were detached to Philippeville; George C. Childress, Letitia and Sinnington Court while the following merchant vessels joined the convoy coming from Philippeville; Afghanistan (British, 6992 GRT, built 1940), Cap Padaran (British (former French), 8009 GRT, built 1922), Fort Fork (British, 7134 GRT, built 1942), Fort Lawrence (British, 7134 GRT, built 1943), Norman Monarch (British, 7005 GRT, built 1943) and Prometheus (British, 6095 GRT, built 1925).

On 4 November 1943 the following ships were detached to Bone; Empire Derwent, F.T. Freylinghuysen, John Mary Odin, Jonathan Trumbull, William B. Woods and William Coddington while the following merchant vessel joined the convoy coming from Bone; Yenangyaung (British, 5447 GRT, 1937).

On 5 November 1943 the following ships were detached to Bizerta; Anna Capano, George M. Bibb, Grand Quevilly, Kemp P. Battle and Wearfield while the following merchant vessel joined the convoy coming from Bizerta; Spero (Norwegian, 3619 GRT, built 1919).

On 5 November 1943 the Errington Court was detached to Bizerta.

On 6 November 1943 the Fort Liard, Puck and Selvik were detached to Malta as was HMS BYMS 2186.

On 6 November 1943 the Afghanistan, Alexander Graham Bell, Augustus S. Merrimon, Baron Stranraer, Benjamin Huntington, British Merit, Cap Padaran, Celtic Monarch, Empire Cameron, Fort de Douaumont, Fort Fork, Fort Lawrence, Francis L. Lee, George B. McClellan, Harberton, Joseph Hewes, Kosciuszko, Lars Kruse, Leland Stanford, Norman Monarch, Pan-Delaware, Prometheus, Richmond Mumford Pearson, Riverton, Robert Dale Owen, Robert F. Stockton, Ronan, Wearwood, William C. Endicott, William F. Cody and Zebulon Pike were detached to Augusta while the following merchant vessel joined the convoy coming from Augusta; Brighton (British, 7345 GRT, built 1943), City of Windsor (British, 7218 GRT, built 1923), Comliebank (British, 5149 GRT, built 1924), Fort la Traite (British, 7134 GRT, built 1942), Fort Pembina (British, 7134 GRT, built 1942), Newbrough (British, 5255 GRT, built 1941), Pellicula (British (tanker), 6254 GRT, built 1936) and Talma (British, 10000 GRT, built 1923).

On 11 November 1943 the Brighton, City of Windsor, Comliebank, Fort la Traite, Fort Pembina, Norjerv, Talma and Yenangyaung arrived at Alexandria after having been detached from the convoy. They took HMS Bergamot and HMS Bryony with them.

The remainder of the convoy arrived at Port Said also on 11 November escorted by HMS Barle and HMS La Malouine. HMS Barle then continued on toward Haifa where she arrived on the 12th.

21 Dec 1943

Convoy MKS 35.

This convoy departed Port Said on 21 December 1943.

On departure from Port Said the convoy was made up of the transports / tankers; City of Eastbourne (British, 5563 GRT, built 1923), City of Exeter (British, 9654 GRT, built 1914), City of Lyons (British, 7063 GRT, built 1926), Empire Prowess (British, 7058 GRT, built 1943), Empire Rosalind (British, 7290 GRT, built 1943), Fort Carlton (British, 7131 GRT, built 1942), Fort Senneville (British, 7131 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Vestal (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Samsteel (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943) and Swiftarrow (American (tanker), 8207 GRT, built 1921).

On departure from Port Said the convoy was escorted by the frigate HMS Barle (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Davies, RNVR) and the corvettes HMS Bergamot (Lt. R.T. Horan, RNR) and HMS La Malouine (Lt. W.A. Ives, RNR).

On 22 December 1943 the following transports departed Alexandria to join the convoy; Fort Bell (British, 7127 GRT, built 1943), Fort Bourbon (British, 7133 GRT, built 1942), Fort Connolly (British, 7133 GRT, built 1943), Fort Fidler (British, 7127 GRT, built 1943), Fort la Traite (British, 7134 GRT, built 1942), Fort Louisbourg (British, 7130 GRT, built 1942), Fort St. Regis (British, 7140 GRT, built 1943), Fort Sturgeon (British, 7127 GRT, built 1943), Kepong (British, 1874 GRT, built 1916), Newbrough (British, 5255 GRT, built 1941), Norfjell (Norwegian (tanker), 8129 GRT, built 1942), Nurani (British, 5414 GRT, built 1941) and Petter (Norwegian (tanker), 9109 GRT, built 1935).

They were escorted by the corvettes HMS Bryony (T/Lt. T. Hand, RNR) and HMS Myosotis (T/Lt. R. Lugg, RNR) which also joined the convoy.

On 26 December 1943, the the following transports / tankers departed Augusta to join the convoy; Afghanistan (British, 6992 GRT, built 1940), Auk (British, 1338 GRT, built 1921), Benjamin Huntington (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), British Respect (British (tanker), 8479 GRT, built 1943), British Restraint (British (tanker), 8448 GRT, built 1943), Empire Franklin (British, 7292 GRT, built 1941), Empire Sunbeam (British, 6711 GRT, built 1941), Fort Reliance (British, 7134 GRT, built 1942), Gabriel Duval (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), George Shiras (American, 7200 GRT, built 1943), Houston Volunteers (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Joel Chandler Harris (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), John Steele (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Marion McKinley Bovard (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Newton D. Baker (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Peter Minuit (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Thorsholm (Norwegian (tanker), 9937 GRT, built 1937) and William H. Jackson (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943).

On 27 December 1943, the following transports arrived at Augusta after having been detached from the convoy; Fort Bell, Fort Bourbon, Fort Connolly, Fort Fiddler, Fort la Traite, Fort Senneville, Fort St. Regis, Fort Sturgeon and Newbrough.

The ships leaving and proceeding to Augusta, were most likely, escorted to and from the rendezvous with the convoy by the torpedo boats Sagittario, Animoso and the M/S trawler HMS Inchmarnock (T/Lt. C.G.V. Corneby, RNR).

On 27 December 1943, the Kepong arrived at Malta after having been detached from the convoy while the following transports / tankers joined the convoy coming from Malta; Avon Coast (British, 1036 GRT, built 1923) and Ocean Coast (British, 1173 GRT, built 1935).

On 28 December 1943, the transport Bradburn (British, 4736 GRT, built 1930) joined coming from Tunis.

On 28 December 1943, the Afghanistan, Auk, Avon Coast, Benjamin Huntington, British Respect, British Restraint, Fort Reliance, Gabriel Duval, Norfjell, Petter, Swiftarrow, Thorsholm and William H. Jackson arrived at Bizerta after having been detached from the convoy while the following transports / tankers joined the convoy coming from Bizerta; Amos Kendall (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Betty Zane (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942), Cap-Penide (French, 1320 GRT, built 1938), Empire Chivalry (British, 6007 GRT, built 1937), Empire Clive (British, 7069 GRT, built 1941), Felipe de Neve (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Francis Amasa Walker (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), James Iredell (American, 7177 GRT, built 1942), Joseph E. Brown (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Kemp P. Battle (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943) and San Amado (British (tanker), 7316 GRT, built 1935). The tank landing ships HMS LST 65 (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) L.J. Smith, RD, RNR) and HMS LST 407 (?) also joined the convoy as did the AA cruiser HMS Colombo (Capt. D.H. Hall-Thompson, RN).

On 29 December 1943, the transports John Wise (American, 7181 GRT, built 1942) and Southgate (British, 4862 GRT, built 1926) joined coming from Bone. Also joining from Bone was the rescue tug HMRT Mindful.

On 29 December 1943, the transports Betty Zane and Houston Volunteers arrived at Philippeville after having been detached from the convoy.

On 29 December 1943, the transport Sulev (British (former Estonian), 2233 GRT, built 1908) departed Bougie and joined the convoy.

On 30 December 1943, the Amos Kendall, Cap-Pinede, Empire Clive, Joel Chandler Harris, John Wise, Kemp P. Battle, Marion McKinley Bovard and Newton D. Baker arrived at Algiers after having been detached from the convoy while the tanker Empire Harbour (British (tanker), 797 GRT, built 1943) joined the convoy coming from Algiers.

On 31 December 1943, the Empire Harbour, Felipe de Neve/, Francis Amasa Walker, George Shiras, James Iredell, John Steele, Joseph E. Brown and Peter Minuit arrived at Oran after having been detached from the convoy while the transports / tankers British Engineer (British (tanker), 6993 GRT, built 1922), Fort Walsh (British, 7126 GRT, built 1943), Orminster (British, 5712 GRT, built 1914), Pencarrow (British, 4841 GRT, built 1921) and Souliotis (Greek, 4299 GRT, built 1917) joined the convoy coming from Oran.

The convoy arrived at Gibraltar on 1 January 1944.

25 Jan 1944

Convoy GUS 29.

This convoy departed Port Said on 25 January 1944.

On departure from Port Said the convoy was made up of the transports / tankers; A.C. Bedford (British (tanker), 9485 GRT, built 1918), Arthur R.P. Davis (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Arthur Riggs (American, 7180 GRT, built 1943), Charles Crocker (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Clan MacNeil (British, 6111 GRT, built 1922), Edward Bruce (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Forest (British, 4998 GRT, built 1937), Fort Bedford (British, 7127 GRT, built 1943), Fort Kaskaskia (British, 7187 GRT, built 1943), Frank A. Vanderlip (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Heimvard (Norwegian, 4851 GRT, built 1930), Rodsley (British, 5000 GRT, built 1939), Samburgh (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Samcleve (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Samgara (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Samida (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943) and Skotaas (Norwegian (tanker), 8190 GRT, built 1931). The LST USS LST 261 (Lt.Cdr. L.I. Reilley, USCG) was also part of the convoy. They were escorted by the corvettes HMS Bergamot (Lt. R.T. Horan, RNR) and HMS Bryony (T/Lt. T. Hand, RNR).

On 26 January 1944, the following transports / tankers departed Alexandria to join the convoy; E. Kirby Smith (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Empire Peak (British, 7045 GRT, built 1943), Empire Southey (British, 7041 GRT, built 1942), Fort Brandon (British, 7131 GRT, built 1943), Fort Caribou (British, 7132 GRT, built 1943), Fort Remy (British, 7127 GRT, built 1943), George Walton (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Jared Ingersoll (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), John J. Crittenden (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Lot Whitcomb (American, 7180 GRT, built 1943), Louis A. Sengteller (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Meonia (Danish, 5214 GRT, built 1927), Pan-Rhode Island (American (tanker), 7742 GRT, built 1941), Patrick C. Boyle (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Samarkand (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Samphire (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Stancleeve (British, 5970 GRT, built 1942), Talma (British, 10000 GRT, built 1923), Van der Capelle (Dutch, 7037 GRT, built 1942) and Woodlark (British, 1501 GRT, built 1928). They were escorted by the corvettes HMS La Malouine (Lt. W.A. Ives, RNR), HMS Myosotis (T/Lt. R. Lugg, RNR) and HMS Primula (T/Lt. E.N. Wilding, RNVR) which also joined the convoy.

On 30 January 1944, the following transports / tankers departed Augusta to join the convoy; Arthur Dobbs (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Belgian Sailor (Belgian, 7028 GRT, built 1942), Charles Goodyear (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Charles Piez (American, 7191 GRT, built 1943), Cistula (Dutch (tanker), 8097 GRT, built 1939), Daniel H. Lownsdale (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Djebel Aures (French, 2835 GRT, built 1929), Empire Harbour (British (tanker), 797 GRT, built 1943), Fort Norman (British, 7133 GRT, built 1942), George Leonard (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), James M. Wayne (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), John C. Breckinridge (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Keilehaven (Dutch, 2968 GRT, built 1919), Louis McLane (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Marit Maersk (Greek (former Danish), 1894 GRT, built 1938), Thomas Nelson Page (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Timothy Bloodworth (American, 7191 GRT, built 1943) and William L. Yancey (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943).

On 31 January 1944, the following transports / tankers arrived at Augusta after having parted company with the convoy; Arthur R.P. Davis, Empire Peak, Empire Southey, Fort Brandon, Fort Caribou, Fort Remy, Pan-Rhode Island, Samphire, Stancleeve and Van der Capelle.

On 31 January 1944, the following transports / tankers arrived at Augusta after having parted company with the convoy; Forest, Meonia, Skotaas, Talma and Woodlark.

On 31 January 1944, the submarine HrMs O 21 (Lt.Cdr. J.F. van Dulm, RNN) departed Malta and joined the convoy. HMS Primula arrived at Malta after having been detached from the convoy.

On 1 February 1944, the following transports / tankers arrived at Bizerta after having parted company with the convoy; A.C. Bedford, Charles Goodyear, Djebel Aures and Empire Harbour. USS LST-261 was also detached to Bizerta. The following transports / tankers joined the convoy coming from Bizerta; Atlantic Coast (British, 890 GRT, built 1934), Black Hawk (American, 7191 GRT, built 1943), Bruce M. (British, 1887 GRT, built 1927), Cotton Valley (British, 1155 GRT, built 1943), Edward Burleson (American, 7244 GRT, built 1943), Empire Cavalier (British (tanker), 9891 GRT, built 1942), Empire Charmian (British, 7519 GRT, built 1943), Empire Emerald (British (tanker), 8032 GRT, built 1941), Empire Marvell (British (tanker), 9812 GRT, built 1942), Empire Perdita (British, 7028 GRT, built 1943), Empire Snow (British, 6327 GRT, built 1941), Esso Concord (American (tanker), 7698 GRT, built 1940), Fort de Douaumont (French, 5266 GRT, built 1918), Harry Lane (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Hebe II (British, 957 GRT, built 1912), Joseph Pulitzer (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Largs Bay (British, 14182 GRT, built 1921), Lawrence D. Tyson (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Linge (Dutch, 2114 GRT, built 1928), William Patterson (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942) and Zane Gray (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943). The AA cruiser HMS Colombo (Capt. H.W. Williams, RN) and the (damaged) destroyer HMS Jervis (Lt.Cdr. R.P. Hill, DSO, DSC, RN) also joined the convoy.

On 2 February 1944, the following transports arrived at Bone after having parted company with the convoy; Belgian Sailor, Fort Norman, James M. Wayne and Linge while the following transports / tankers joined the convoy coming from Bone; Anna N. Goulandris (Greek, 4358 GRT, built 1921), Gulfgem (American (tanker), 6784 GRT, built 1920), P.L.M. 17 (British (former French), 4008 GRT, built 1922) and Skeldergate (British, 4251 GRT, built 1930).

On 2 February 1944, the following transports arrived at Bone after having parted company with the convoy; Arthur Dobbs and Cotton Valley while the following transports / tankers joined the convoy coming from Philippeville; Henry Baldwin (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942) and James Jackson (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943).

On 3 February 1944, the transport Empire Charmian arrived at Bougie after having parted company with the convoy.

On 3 February 1944, the following transports arrived at Algiers after having parted company with the convoy; Charles Piez, Daniel H. Lownsdale, Fort de Douaumont, George Leonard, Hebe II, Joseph Pulitzer, Marit Maersk and William Patterson while the following transports joined the convoy coming from Algiers; Appledore (British, 5218 GRT, built 1929), Baron Douglas (British, 3899 GRT, built 1932), Coulmore (British, 3670 GRT, built 1936), David L. Swain (American, 7177 GRT, built 1943), Ingleton (British, 7203 GRT, built 1942), Kelbergen (Dutch, 4823 GRT, built 1914), Lafcadio Hearn (American (tanker), 7218 GRT, built 1943), Lornaston (British, 4934 GRT, built 1925), Mount Othrys (Greek, 6527 GRT, built 1919), Ocean Vigil (British, 7174 GRT, built 1941) and Stanford Newel (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943).

On 4 February 1944, the following transports arrived at Oran after having parted company with the convoy; Anna N. Goulandris, Atlantic Coast, Coulmore, David L. Swain, Louis McLane, Thomas Nelson Page and Zane Gray while the following transports / tanker joined the convoy coming from Algiers; Gallium (French, 1775 GRT, built 1924), Hiram S. Maxim (American, 7194 GRT, built 1943), Iroquois (British (tanker), 8937 GRT, built 1907), O'Henry (American, 7181 GRT, built 1942) and Parame (French, 2337 GRT, built 1918).

On 5 February 1944, the following transports / tankers arrived at Oran after having parted company with the convoy; Appledore, Baron Douglas, Bruce M., Clan MacNeil, Empire Perdita/, Empire Snow, Ingleton, Iroquois, Kelbergen, Largs Bay, Lornaston, Ocean Vigil, P.L.M. 17, Rodsley and Skeldergate. Also arriving at Gibraltar were HMS Colombo, HMS Jervis, HMS Bergamot, HMS Bryony, HMS La Malouine, HMS Myosotis and HrMs O 21.

Also on 5 February 1944, the following transports / tankers departed Gibraltar to join the convoy; E.W. Sinclair (American (tanker), 10907 GRT, built 1942), Empire Plover (British, 6109 GRT, built 1920), Empire Tana (British, 6275 GRT, built 1922), Luther Martin (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942) and Ocean Valentine (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942). They were escorted by a new, American, escort made up of the destroyer USS Gleaves (T/Cdr. B.L. Gurnette, USN, with COMTASKFOR 63, Capt. H.S. Berdine, USCG on board) and the destroyer escorts USS J. Richard Ward (Lt. D.A. Smith, USNR, with COMCORTDIV 63, Capt. T.S. Dunstan, USNR, on board), USS Keith (Lt. J.L. Rinn, USNR), USS Otterstetter (Lt. L.E. Whitmore, USNR), USS Sloat (Lt.Cdr. W.A. Cashman, USNR) and USS Tomich (Lt. C.B. Brown, USNR).

Around 2200A/5, the convoy was joined by the destroyer escorts USS Sellstrom (Cdr. W.L. Maloney, USCG, with COMCORTDIV 7, Cdr. F.P. Vetterick, USNR, on board), USS Mills (Lt.Cdr. J.S. Muzzy, USCG), USS Ramsden (Cdr. J.E. Madacey, USCG), USS Rhodes (Cdr. E.A. Coffin, Jr., USCG) and USS Savage (Cdr. O.C. Rohnke, USCG) which had first been on an A/S sweep.

On 5 February 1944, the Casablanca section of the convoy departed that place. It was made up of the tanker Taria (Dutch (tanker), 10354 GRT, built 1939) and the naval tanker USS Mattaponi (T/Capt. M.C. Barrett, USN). They were escorted by the seaplane tender USS Matagorda (Cdr. A. Crinkley, USN), destroyer escort USS Richey (Cdr. P.DuP. Mills, USCG) and the patrol vessels USS PC-475 (Lt. W.W. Devine, Jr., USNR) and USS PC-481 (Lt. D.W. Hunter, USNR). They made rendezvous with the convoy around 1045A/6 when the tankers and USS Richey joined the convoy. USS Matagorda, USS PC-475 and USS PC-481 then set course to return to Casablanca taking the transports / tankers E.W. Sinclair, Empire Plover, Empire Tana, Gallium, Keilehaven, Mount Othrys, Ocean Valentin and Parame with them. They all arrived at Casablanca on 7 February 1944.

Around 1330Z/8, USS Tomich was detached to proceed to the Azores to escort the Azores section of the convoy which was to join the convoy from there.

Around 1030Z/10, USS Tomich rejoined the convoy from the Azores. She had the transports Abraham Baldwin (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942) and Phineas Banning (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943) with her which joined the convoy.

Also on 10 February 1944, USS Gleaves fuelled from USS Mattaponi.

Around 1530Z/11, USS Tomich parted company with the convoy to make rendezvous with the tanker Katy (Norwegian (tanker), 6826 GRT, 1931) coming from the Azores.

Around 0630Z/14, USS Tomich and the Katy (re)joined the convoy.

Also on 14 February 1944, USS Gleaves again fuelled from USS Mattaponi.

Around 2200Z/18, USS Mattaponi and the transport Samgara were detached to Bermuda taking USS Tomich with them as escort. The Samgara had problems with her rudder.

Around 1200Z/19, USS Mills parted company to proceed to Bermuda to land a medical case.

Around 2100Z/19, the transports Frank A. Vanderlip and John J. Crittenden were detached to proceed independently to Saint John, New Brunswick and Boston respecively.

Around 0330Z/20, USS Mills rejoined from Bermuda.

Around 1215Z/20, the tanker Gulfgem was detached to proceed independently to Harbor Island, Texas.

Around 0630Z/21, the Chesapeake Bay section of the convoy parted company. It was made up of 14 ships and was escorted to Hampton Roads by USS Sellstrom, USS Ramsden, USS Rhodes and USS Savage. The Chesapeake Bay section arrived at its destination the following morning.

Around 0300Z/22, USS Mills was detached to escort two ships to Delaware Capes where they arrived in the afternoon.

In the evening of 22 February 1944, the remaining ships of the convoy arrived at New York.

4 Mar 1944

Combined convoy OS 70 / KMS 44.

This combined convoy was assembled off Oversay on 4 March 1944.

It was made up of the following merchant vessels; Angelo (British, 2199 GRT, built 1940), Archangelos (Greek, 5692 GRT, built 1918), Baron Forbes (British, 3061 GRT, built 1915), Baron Maclay (British, 6317 GRT, built 1924), Baron Stranraer (British, 3668 GRT, built 1929), Bruse Jarl (Norwegian, 1890 GRT, built 1923), Cap Cantin (British (former French), 3317 GRT, built 1933), Carslogie (British, 3786 GRT, built 1924), Empire Nile (British, 6318 GRT, built 1921), Empire Rosalind (British, 7290 GRT, built 1943), Empire Spartan (British, 7009 GRT, built 1942), Empire Spey (British, 4292 GRT, built 1929), Eurybates (British, 6276 GRT, built 1928), Fort Aklavik (British, 7132 GRT, built 1943), Fort Gaspereau (British, 7134 GRT, built 1943), Fort Liard (British, 7133 GRT, built 1942), Fort Marin (British, 7159 GRT, built 1943), Fort Nakasley (British, 7132 GRT, built 1943), Fort Richelieu (British, 7130 GRT, built 1943), Groix (British, 9975 GRT, built 1922), Helencrest (British, 5233 GRT, built 1941), Hermiston (British, 4813 GRT, built 1939), Hopestar (British, 5267 GRT, built 1936), Isipingo (British, 7069 GRT, built 1930), Janeta (British, 4312 GRT, built 1929), Jenny (Norwegian, 4706 GRT, built 1928), Kana (British, 2783 GRT, built 1929), Langleetarn (British, 4908 GRT, built 1929), Leonidas (Greek, 4573 GRT, built 1929), Lorca (British, 4875 GRT, built 1931), Matheran (British, 8007 GRT, built 1942), Monkleigh (British, 5203 GRT, built 1927), Nanceen (French, 2895 GRT, built 1929), Nurani (British, 5414 GRT, built 1941), Porjus (Swedish, 2965 GRT, built 1906), Radmanso (Swedish, 4280 GRT, built 1914), Radport (British, 5355 GRT, built 1925), Redgate (British, 4323 GRT, built 1929), Samoa (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Slesvig (British, 3098 GRT, built 1938), Stal (British (former Danish), 2242 GRT, built 1921), Stanhope (British, 2337 GRT, built 1919), Thomas Holt (British, 3585 GRT, built 1929), Topdalsfjord (Norwegian, 4271 GRT, built 1921), Urbino (British, 5198 GRT, built 1918), Ville de Strasbourg (British, (former French), 7007 GRT, built 1920) and Wayfarer (British, 5068 GRT, built 1925).

The rescue ship Fastnet (British, 1415 GRT, built 1928) was also with the convoy.

On assembly the convoy was escorted by the escort carrier HMS Striker (Capt. W.P. Carne, RN), frigates HMS Exe (Cdr. C.E.E. Paterson, RN), HMS Moyola (Lt.Cdr. H.N. Lawson, RD, RNR), HMS Foley (A/Lt.Cdr. C.A.H. Bird, RNVR), corvettes HMS Armeria (T/Lt. M. Todd, RNR), HMS Burdock (Lt. H.M. Collier, RNR), HMS Clarkia (A/Lt.Cdr. J.O. Williams, RNR), HMS Dittany (T/Lt. S.W. Lock, RNVR), HMS Berkeley Castle (T/Lt. F.A. Darrah, RNVR) and the A/S trawler HMS Fusilier (T/Lt. F.M. Phillips, RNVR).

The following merchant vessels of the convoy returned to the U.K. after sailing; Angelo, Hopestar and Stal.

On 10 March 1944, the frigate HMS Foley parted company with the convoy to join the northbound combined convoy SL 150 / MKS 41 while the escort oiler San Tirso (British (tanker), 6266 GRT, built 1913) joined coming from this convoy.

On 16 March 1944, the convoy split into convoy OS 70 bound for Freetown and convoy KMS 44 bound for the Mediterranean.

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Convoy OS 70 was made up of the merchant vessels; Baron Stranraer, Cap Cantin, Fort Liard, Groix, Isipingo, Jenny, Porjus, Thomas Holt and Ville de Strasbourg.

On 15 March 1944, the merchant vessels Aelbert Cuyp (Dutch, 7086 GRT, built 1942), Empire Nerissa (British, 7086 GRT, built 1943), Fort Nashwaak (British, 7134 GRT, built 1943), Fort Norman (British, 7133 GRT, built 1942), Govert Flinck (Dutch, 7178 GRT, built 1942), Langleebrook (British, 4246 GRT, built 1930), Romney (British, 5840 GRT, built 1929) and Vernon L. Kellogg (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943) departed Gibraltar escorted by the sloop HMS Enchantress (Lt.Cdr. E.D.J. Abbot, DSC, RN), frigate HMS Ness (T/A/Lt.Cdr. R.H. Marchington, MBE, RNVR) and the corvette HMS Pimpernel (Lt. H.D. Hayes, RNR). These ships joined the combined convoy when it split.

On 16 March 1944, the following transports departed Casablanca to join the convoy; Empire Cabot (British, 6715 GRT, built 1941), Finistere (French, 1158 GRT, built 1909), Fort Fairford (British, 7134 GRT, built 1943), Isaac Coles (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Parkhaven (Dutch, 4803 GRT, built 1920) and Tilsington Court (British, 6910 GRT, built 1928). They were escorted by the minesweeping sloops Chevreul, Gazelle and the patrol vessels USS PC-475 (Lt. W.W. Devine, Jr., USNR) and USS PC-480 (Lt.(jg) J.K. Miller, USNR).

On these ships joining on the 17th, the transports Empire Nerissa, Fort Liard, Langleebrook, Porjus and Romney were detached to Casablanca where they arrived later on the 17th. They were escorted by the two American patrol vessels as the two French minesweeping sloops had joined the convoy.

On 22 March 1944, the transports Finistere, Isaac Coles and Vernon L. Kellogg arrived at Dakar after having been detached from the convoy while the transport Hoggar (French, 5146 GRT, built 1923) joined the convoy coming from Dakar. The two French minesweeping sloops also proceeded to Dakar.

On 23 March 1944, the transports Cap Cantin and Fort Nashwaak arrived at Bathurst after having been detached from the convoy.

The convoy arrived at Freetown on 25 March 1944. Some ships of the convoy did not enter Freetown but proceed directly to other destinations.

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Convoy KMS 44, made up of the remaining ships, proceeded towards the Mediterranean with the original escort of the combined convoy.

On 17 March 1944, the following transports arrived at Gibraltar; Archangelos, Lorca, Redgate, Slesvig, rescue ship Fastnet and the escort oiler San Tirso arrived at Gibraltar together with the original escort of the combined convoy minus HMS Dittany.

The transports Baron Forbes, Kana, Monkleigh, Radport and Stanhope proceeded directly to Lissabon after the convoy had split. They were possible escorted by HMS Dittany which did not arrive with the other escort at Gibraltar on the 17th but only arrived there on the 20th.

The following ships of the convoy meanwhile directly entered the Mediterranean; Baron Maclay, Bruse Jarl, Carslogie, Empire Nile, Empire Rosalind, Empire Spartan, Empire Spey, Eurybates, Fort Aklavik, Fort Gaspereau, Fort Marin, Fort Nakasley, Fort Richelieu, Helencrest, Hermiston, Janeta, Langleetarn, Leonidas, Matheran, Nanceen, Nurani, Radmanso, Samoa, Topsdalfjord, Urbino and Wyfarer.

On passing Gibraltar they were joined by the transports Joshua Hendy (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Maycrest (British, 5923 GRT, built 1913) and Southgate (British, 4862 GRT, built 1926). Also a new escort joined for the passage through the Mediterranean, this was made up of the following ships; AA cruiser HMS Colombo (Capt. H.W. Williams, RN), frigate HMS Barle (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Davies, RNVR) and the corvettes HMS Bergamot (A/Lt.Cdr. W. McInnes, RNR), HMS Bryony (T/Lt. T. Hand, RNR), HMS La Malouine (Lt. W.A. Ives, RNR) and (the Yugoslavian) Nada. The submarine HMS Spiteful (Lt.Cdr. F.H. Sherwood, DSC, RCNVR) and the rescue tug HMRT Vagrant also joined the convoy.

On 18 February 1944, the transports Carslogie, Joshua Hendy and Maycrest arrived at Oran after having been detached from the convoy while the transports Benito Juarez (American, 7244 GRT, built 1943), City of Canterbury (British, 8331 GRT, built 1922), Crawford W. Long (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Crosby S. Noyes (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Joseph H. Hollister (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Joshua Seney (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Mayo Brothers (American, 7191 GRT, built 1942), Spindletop (British, 1155 GRT, built 1943), William Kent (American, 7187 GRT, built 1942) and Zacapa (American, 5013 GRT, built 1909) joined the convoy coming from Oran.

On 19 February 1944, the transports Fort Gaspereau, Hermiston, Janeta, Leonidas and Zapaca arrived at Algiers after having been detached from the convoy while the transports / tankers Empire Addison (British, 7010 GRT, built 1942), Empire Gain (British (tanker), 3738 GRT, built 1943), Empire Southey (British, 7041 GRT, built 1942), Empire Wordsworth (British (tanker), 9891 GRT, built 1942), Esneh (British, 1931 GRT, built 1919), Fort Ash (British, 7131 GRT, built 1943), Fort Glenora (British, 7126 GRT, built 1943), Fort la Traite (British, 7134 GRT, built 1942), Hermelin (Norwegian, 1683 GRT, built 1940), Linge (Dutch, 2114 GRT, built 1928), Meonia (Danish, 5214 GRT, built 1927), Parame (French, 2337 GRT, built 1918), Samettrick (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Samuel V. Shreve (British, 1813 GRT, built 1943) and Solarium (British, 6239 GRT, built 1936) joined the convoy coming from Algiers.

On 20 February 1944, the transports Brighton (British, 5359 GRT, built 1928), Fort Rae (British, 7132 GRT, built 1942) and Lightfoot (British, 1894 GRT, built 1922) joined the convoy coming from Philippeville.

On 20 February 1944, the transports Bruse Jarl, Empire Gain, Fort Rae and Radmanso arrived at Bone after having parted company with the convoy while the transports Empire Cameron (British, 7015 GRT, built 1941), Empire Copperfield (British, 6013 GRT, built 1943), Empire Viceroy (British, 7803 GRT, built 1943), Graiglas (British, 4312 GRT, built 1940), Ousel (British, 1533 GRT, built 1922), Sammex (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943) and Samson (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943) joined the convoy coming from Bone.

On 21 February 1944, the transports Empire Spartan, Empire Spey, Mayo Brothers, Nanceen, Parame and Solarium arrived at Bizerta as did HMS Colombo after having parted company with the convoy while the transport / tankers Asa Gray (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Elise (Norwegian (tanker), 7910 GRT, built 1931) and Meline (Norwegian (tanker), 6983 GRT, built 1918) joined the convoy coming from Bizerta.

On 22 February 1944, the transports Graiglas, Topsdalfjord arrived at Malta after having parted company with the convoy as did HMS Spiteful and the Yugoslavian corvette Nada while the tanker Egero (Norwegian (tanker), 7590 GRT, built 1929), transport Empire Noble (British, 7125 GRT, built 1944) and the bouy / lighthouse tender Darien II (British, 459 GRT, built 1892) joined the convoy coming from Malta.

On 22 February 1944, the transports / tankers Beaconsfield (British, 4635 GRT, built 1938), Corfell (British, 1802 GRT, built 1934), Dallington Court (British, 6889 GRT, built 1929), Destro (British, 3553 GRT, built 1920), Dunera (British, 11162 GRT, built 1937), Ekaterini Coumantarou (Greek, 7777 GRT, built 1917), Empire Grange (British, 6981 GRT, built 1943), Empire Peak (British, 7045 GRT, built 1943), Fort Bourbon (British, 7133 GRT, built 1942), Fort Glenlyon (British, 7132 GRT, built 1943), Fort Senneville (British, 7131 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Liberty (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Ocean Vulcan (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Riverton (British, 7307 GRT, built 1943), Samnebra (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), San Rafael (Panamanian, 5379 GRT, built 1919), Van der Capelle (Dutch, 7037 GRT, built 1942), Zaanstroom (Dutch, 1646 GRT, built 1920) departed Augusta to join the convoy while the following transports / tankers parted company with the convoy and proceeded to Augusta; Asa Gray, Benito Juarez, Brighton, City of Canterbury, Crawford W. Long, Crosby S. Noyes, Empire Addison, Empire Cameron, Empire Copperfield, Empire Rosalind, Empire Southey, Empire Wordsworth, Esneh, Fort Aklavik, Fort Ash, Fort Glenora, Fort la Traite, Fort Marin, Fort Richelieu, Helencrest, Hermelin, Joseph H. Hollister, Joshua Seney, Langleetarn, Lightfoot, Linge, Ousel, Samettick, Sammex, Samoa, Samson, Samuel V. Shreve, Southgate, Spindletop and William Kent.

On 26 March 1944, the transports Beaconsfield, Corfell, Elise, Empire Noble, Empire Peak, Fort Glenlyon, Ocean Vulcan, Riverton, Samnebra and Van der Capelle arrived at Alexandria after having parted company with the convoy. Also HMS Barle and HMS La Malouine arrived at Alexandria.

The remainder of the convoy arrived at Port Said on 27 March 1944.

17 Mar 1944
The AA cruiser HMS Colombo (Capt. H.W. Williams, RN), frigate HMS Barle (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Davies, RNVR) and the corvettes HMS Bergamot (A/Lt.Cdr. W. McInnes, RNR), HMS Bryony (T/Lt. T. Hand, RNR), HMS La Malouine (Lt. W.A. Ives, RNR) and (the Yugoslavian) Nada, submarine HMS Spiteful (Lt.Cdr. F.H. Sherwood, DSC, RCNVR) and the rescue tug HMRT Vagrant departed Gibraltar to join convoy KMS 44.

[For more info on this convoy see the event ' Combined convoy OS 70 / KMS 44 ' for 4 March 1944.] (10)

16 Apr 1944
HMS La Malouine (Lt. W.A. Ives, RNR) picks up 72 survivors from the American merchant Meyer London that was torpedoed and sunk by German U-boat U-407 about 17 nautical miles off Derna in position 32°51'N, 23°00'E.

28 Jun 1944

Convoy MKS 54.

This convoy departed Port Said on 28 June 1944.

On departure from Port Said the convoy was made up of the transports / tankers; Adolph S. Ochs (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Algorab (Dutch, 4938 GRT, built 1921), Baron Maclay (British, 6317 GRT, built 1924), British Chemist (British (tanker), 6997 GRT, built 1925), Destro (British, 3553 GRT, built 1920), Empire Noble (British, 7125 GRT, built 1944), Empire Splendour (British, 7335 GRT, built 1942), Empire Torrent (British, 7076 GRT, built 1942), Empire Tweed (British, 5452 GRT, built 1937), Empire Unicorn (British, 7067 GRT, built 1943), Fort Cumberland (British, 7134 GRT, built 1943), Fort Kootenay (British, 7133 GRT, built 1942), Inventor (British, 6210 GRT, built 1935), Kyklades (Greek, 7157 GRT, built 1941), Norelg (Norwegian, 6103 GRT, built 1920), Sambre (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Samsurf (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Stancleeve (British, 5970 GRT, built 1942), Suderholm (Norwegian (tanker), 4908 GRT, built 1917), Tarantia (British, 7268 GRT, built 1942) and Tide Water Associated (American (tanker), 8906 GRT, built 1930).

The aircraft transport HMS Athene (T/A/Cdr. C.H. Moulton, RNR) was also part of the convoy.

On departure from Port Said the convoy was escorted by the frigate HMS Barle (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Davies, RNVR) and the corvettes HMS Bryony (T/Lt. T. Hand, RNR) and HMS Myosotis (T/Lt. R. Lugg, RNR).

On 29 June 1944, the following transports / tankers departed Alexandria to join the convoy; Empire Rosalind (British, 7290 GRT, built 1943), Fort Aklavik (British, 7132 GRT, built 1943), Fort Beausejour (British, 7151 GRT, built 1943), Fort Chesterfield (British, 7100 GRT, built 1943), Fort Frontenac (British, 7148 GRT, built 1943), Fort Marin (British, 7159 GRT, built 1943), Marit Maersk (Greek (former Danish), 1894 GRT, built 1938) and Palermo (British, 2797 GRT, built 1938).

They were escorted by the corvettes HMS Jonquil (T/A/Lt.Cdr. R.W. Tretheway, RNR) and HMS La Malouine (Lt. W.A. Ives, RNR).

On 29 Jun 1944, the Kyklades arrived at Alexandria after having been detached from the convoy.

On 3 July 1944, the following ships departed Augusta to join the convoy; Avon Coast (British, 1036 GRT, built 1923), Boltonhall (British, 4824 GRT, built 1935), Empire Spartan (British, 7009 GRT, built 1942), George Bancroft (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942), Grenville M. Dodge (American, 7194 GRT, built 1942), Hermelin (Norwegian, 1683 GRT, built 1940), John C. Breckinridge (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Nicolaos Michalos (Greek, 4342 GRT, built 1913), Ocean Vulcan (British, 7174 GRT, built 1942), Odysseus (Dutch, 1057 GRT, 1922), Pan-Maryland (American (tanker), 7701 GRT, built 1938), Samnebra (British, 7219 GRT, built 1943), Spindletop (British, 1155 GRT, built 1943), Thomas R. Marshall (American, 7200 GRT, built 1943), Ulla (British, 1575 GRT, built 1930), William F. Cody (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942) and William H. Wilmer (American, 7191 GRT, built 1943).

On 4 July 1944, the following ships arrived at Augusta after having parted company with the convoy; Algorab, Baron Maclay, British Chemist, Destro, Empire Noble, Empire Rosalind, Empire Splendour, Empire Torrent, Empire Unicorn, Fort Aklavik, Fort Beausejour, Fort Chesterfield, Fort Cumberland, Fort Frontnac, Fort Marin, Marit Maersk, Norelg, Palermo, Sambre, StancleeveTide Water Associated.

On 4 July 1944, the transport Yearby (British, 5666 GRT, built 1929) and rescue tug HMRT Behest joined the convoy coming from Malta.

On 5 July 1944, the following ships arrived at Bizerta after having parted company with the convoy; Fort Kootenay, Spindletop and Suderholm while the following ships joined the convoy coming from Bizerta; Empire Harbour (British (tanker), 797 GRT, built 1943), Hopestar (British, 5267 GRT, built 1936), Meonia (Danish, 5214 GRT, built 1927), Prosper Schiaffino (French, 1634 GRT, built 1931). Also the AA cruiser HMS Colombo (Capt. C.T. Jellicoe, DSO, DSC and Bar, RN) joined the convoy.

On 6 July 1944, the following ships arrived at Bone after having parted company with the convoy; Empire Harbour, Nicolaos Michalos, Odysseus and Samnebra while the following ships joined the convoy coming from Bone; Baron Elgin (British, 3942 GRT, built 1933), Fylingdale (British, 3918 GRT, built 1924) and Runswick (British, 3970 GRT, built 1930).

On 6 July 1944, the Ottinge (British, 2818 GRT, built 1940) joined the convoy off Philippeville.

On 7 July 1944, the following ships arrived at Algiers after having parted company with the convoy; Avon Coast, Boltonhall, Empire Spartan, Meonia, Ocean Vulcan, Pan-Maryland and Prosper Schiaffino while the following ships joined the convoy coming from Algiers; Jan (Norwegain, 1946 GRT, built 1920), Keilehaven (Dutch, 2968 GRT, built 191), Newton D. Baker (American, 7176 GRT, built 1943), Stad Arnhem (Dutch, 3819 GRT, built 1920), Stephen F. Austin (American, 7176 GRT, built 1942) and Vigsnes (Norwegian, 1599 GRT, built 1930).

On 8 July 1944, the following ships arrived at Oran after having parted company with the convoy; George Bancroft, Grenville M. Dodge, John C. Breckinridge, Newton D. Baker, Thomas R. Marshall, William F. Cody and William H. Wilmer while the Benjamin Tay (British, 1814 GRT, built 1943) joined the convoy coming from Oran.

Around 0530B/9, HMS Colombo and HMS Athene parted company with the convoy to proceed ahead of the convoy to Gibraltar where they arrived around 2000B/9.

The convoy arrived at Gibraltar on 10 July 1944. Some ships probably did not enter but immediately joined convoy MKS 54G.

Sources

  1. File 2.12.03.6435 (Dutch Archives, The Hague, Netherlands)
  2. ADM 173/16291
  3. ADM 173/16736
  4. ADM 199/1880
  5. ADM 173/17244
  6. ADM 173/17813
  7. ADM 173/17756
  8. ADM 173/17814
  9. ADM 1/13729 + ADM 199/585 + ADM 199/2101
  10. ADM 199/2494

ADM numbers indicate documents at the British National Archives at Kew, London.


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