Movies and Films  
This is the forum for Movie and Film discussions. Again, our topic is naval warfare in WWII for the most part. 
Re: U-156 & Red Cross
Posted by: ThomasHorton ()
Date: September 02, 2009 03:09PM

In accordance with the "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field, Geneva, 27 July 1929", and specifically Chapter VI, Articles 22 and 24, indicate that the use of the Red Cross emblem in the context of the U-156 incident was inappropriate.

While the U-156's commander's intent was clear, the use of the Red Cross Emblem on a warship is in violation of articles 22 and 24.

[www.icrc.org]

In addition, "Rules concerning the Control of Wireless Telegraphy in Time of War and Air Warfare. Drafted by a Commission of Jurists at the Hague, December 1922 - February 1923", state that

"Art. 25. In bombardments by aircraft, all necessary steps should be taken by the commander to spare, as far as possible, buildings dedicated to public worship, art, science, and charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospital ships, hospitals and other places where the sick and wounded are gathered, provided that such buildings, objectives and places are not being used at the same time for military purposes. Such monuments, objects and places must be indicated, during the day, by signs visible from the aircraft. Using such signs to indicate buildings, objects or places other than those hereinbefore specified shall be considered a perfidious act. The signs of which the above mentioned use is to be made, shall be, in the case of buildings protected under the Geneva Convention, the red cross on a white ground and, in the case of the other protected buildings, a large rectangular panel divided diagonally into two triangles, the one white and the other black."

[www.icrc.org]

The key phrases are "provided that such buildings, objectives and places are not being used at the same time for military purposes." And

“Using such signs to indicate buildings, objects or places other than those hereinbefore specified shall be considered a perfidious act.”

The U-156, continuing to be a viable warship throughout the incident can not temporarily change its status from warship to a protected ship based on the decisions of the captain. In this interpretation, the actions of the bombing aircraft were in accordance to Article 25 of “Rules concerning the Control of Wireless Telegraphy in Time of War and Air Warfare. Drafted by a Commission of Jurists at the Hague, December 1922 - February 1923". The actions of the U-156 could have been considered a perfidious act.

The intent and actions of the captain of the U-156 were laudable and should be commended. Unfortunately his misuse, no matter how innocent, of using the recognized emblem of the International Committee of the Red Cross was a violation of the applicable international laws and could have been interpreted as a perfidious act.

I do not think the actions of the captain of the U-156 could, in any way, be considered perfidious.

The actions of the bombing aircraft, while somewhat inhumane/immoral, were legal under the applicable international laws. No international laws concerning warfare would prohibit military actions against a recognized military target in favour of protecting civilians and/or the sick/wounded. The only requirement, both moral and legal, is to limit the damage to civilians/sick/wounded as much as possible.
In my opinion, the incident between the U-156 and the bombing aircraft was an unfortunate circumstance.

In the case of the U-156, its actions were moral but illegal

In the case of the bombing aircraft, its actions were immoral but legal

However, neither of the parties had the intent to commit any war crimes or violate any international laws.

Options: ReplyQuote


Subject Written By Posted
U-156 Movie Hubertus 11/21/2005 11:52AM
Re: U-156 Movie ROBERT M. 11/21/2005 03:06PM
Re: U-156 Movie Hubertus 11/22/2005 10:07AM
Re: U-156 Movie Wiljan Bakers 11/23/2005 11:20AM
Re: U-156 Movie Hubertus 11/23/2005 12:15PM
Re: U-156 Movie Ed Litwiller 11/24/2005 04:39AM
Re: U-156 Movie Kevin Price 11/08/2015 02:58PM
Re: U-156 Movie Albert 01/22/2010 07:27PM
Re: U-156 Movie Io Chrysafidou 11/25/2005 07:57AM
Re: U-156 Movie Hubertus 11/25/2005 09:25AM
Re: U-156 Movie Fregatte 12/06/2005 03:53PM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross Mark E. Horan 01/15/2006 01:41AM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross Hubertus 01/15/2006 06:50AM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross ROBERT M. 01/15/2006 07:23AM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross Hubertus 01/15/2006 08:20AM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross ROBERT M. 01/15/2006 06:57AM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross Hubertus 01/15/2006 07:02AM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross ThomasHorton 09/02/2009 03:09PM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross Volker Erich Kummrow 09/03/2009 08:33AM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross ThomasHorton 09/03/2009 01:16PM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross Volker Erich Kummrow 09/03/2009 05:54PM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross ThomasHorton 09/04/2009 03:05PM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross Volker Erich Kummrow 09/04/2009 04:26PM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross ThomasHorton 09/04/2009 05:22PM
Re: U-156 & Red Cross Volker Erich Kummrow 09/04/2009 06:50PM
Re: U-156 Movie Yasser Khorchid 12/07/2005 01:01PM
Re: U-156 Movie houpiez 03/30/2008 12:49PM
Re: U-156 Movie houpiez 03/31/2008 06:37AM
Re: U-156 Movie Laurence Shepherd 08/01/2008 05:39AM
Re: U-156 Movie Michael Matthews 04/26/2009 08:40AM
Re: U-156 Movie Jan7 04/26/2009 11:15AM
Re: U-156 Movie MrChips 08/09/2017 11:57AM
Re: U-156 Movie piekenier 08/12/2009 08:50PM
Re: U-156 Movie Woody 10/09/2009 02:18PM
Re: U-156 Movie Rich Mickle 05/28/2010 10:10PM
Re: U-156 Movie Michael H Brooks 11/15/2010 09:53PM
Re: U-156 Movie Geoff 01/07/2011 11:09PM
Re: U-156 Movie Roger156 01/09/2011 10:51PM
Re: U-156 Movie Raysur52 01/12/2011 06:11PM
Re: U-156 Movie Arethusa 11/09/2011 01:16AM
Re: U-156 Movie Matthias 11/09/2011 09:00AM
Re: U-156 Movie Åkerberg 11/09/2011 11:11AM


Your Name: 
Your Email: 
Subject: 
Spam prevention:
Please, enter the code that you see below in the input field. This is for blocking bots that try to post this form automatically.
 **     **  ********  ********  **    **  **     ** 
  **   **   **    **  **        ***   **  **     ** 
   ** **        **    **        ****  **  **     ** 
    ***        **     ******    ** ** **  ********* 
   ** **      **      **        **  ****  **     ** 
  **   **     **      **        **   ***  **     ** 
 **     **    **      ********  **    **  **     **